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Monday 16 July 2018
Lilian day 2175462.7393

Here’s today’s date in 555 languages and dialects, complete with a profile of each. I’m favoring languages that are at least a bit off the beaten track, offer Gregorian calendar terms that depart substantially from your run-of-the-mill neo-Latin, or both. (Spanish? No. Asturian? Yes.)

Blue terms in parentheses ( ) are alternate names for a language, while those in brackets [ ] specify a particular subdivision or dialect shown. Click the blue language name for its ISO code and background info.

j. JENUIER / LOUWMAAND
ij. FREUIER / SPROKKELMAAND
iij. MARCH / LENTEMAAND
iiij. AURIL / GRASMAAND
v. MAY / BLOEIMAAND
vj. JUING / ZOMERMAAND
vij. JUILLET / HOOIMAAND
viij. AUOUST / OOGSTMAAND
ix. SEPTĒBRE / HERFSTMAAND
x. OCTĒBRE / WIJNMAAND
xj. NOUĒBRE / SLACHTMAAND
xij. DECĒBRE / WINTERMAAND
<span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>j. JENUIER / LOUWMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ij. FREUIER / SPROKKELMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iij. MARCH / LENTEMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>iiij. AURIL / GRASMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>v. MAY / BLOEIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vj. JUING / ZOMERMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>vij. JUILLET / HOOIMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>viij. AUOUST / OOGSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>ix. SEPTĒBRE / HERFSTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>x. OCTĒBRE / WIJNMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xj. NOUĒBRE / SLACHTMAAND</aside></i></span> <span class="generic-slide-caption" style="width:194px;"><i><aside>xij. DECĒBRE / WINTERMAAND</aside></i></span>

One of the surprises here is how many non-European languages have Gregorian date terminology like this to dust off, at least for the record, even as their underlying cultures stand foursquare behind Islamic (Hijri), Hindu, Buddhist, or other calendar systems.

For those that expired before the advent of modern place-value numerals I’m using Roman. For Etruscan I’m using Etruscan numerals while pretending those serene, elbow-lounging folks used the Gregorian calendar and reckoned dates sequentially as we do.1 Traditional Chuvash numerals follow a similar scheme, but with the smaller units to the left of the larger ones, a slash for 5, and a star for 1000. Moksha resembled Chuvash but used a lambda for 10 and a kind of reflected sawhorse for 1000.

The only non-Gregorian date2 I’m showing is a rough estimate for the Gaulish, whose calendar was offset by about half a month from that used by their Roman contemporaries and whose months alternated between 29 and 30 days as opposed to 30 and 31.3

Peter


Abaza: Abaza ✧ ABQ ✧ Northwest Caucasian, endangered, 48,000 speakers in Russia and in Turkish diaspora communities. Natively it has 63 consonants but only 2 vowels.
16 пхынчыльа (pĥynčyla) 2018
Abenaki [Western]: Abenaki [Western] ✧ ABE ✧ Algonquian family. Spoken by fewer than 20 in Odanak, Quebec.
16 Tamaskikos or Sataikas 2018
Abkhaz: Abkhaz ✧ ABK ✧ Northwest Caucasian. Has eight different kinds of K sounds + Q.
16 ҧхынгәы (ğhyngãy) 2018
Afar: Afar ✧ AAR ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia.
16 Qado Dirri 2018
Aghem (Wum): Aghem (Wum) ✧ AGQ ✧ Niger-Congo family, Cameroon. Aghem speakers traditionally used leopard-skin carpets.
16 ndzɔ̱ŋɔ̱dùmlo 2018
Agul: Agul ✧ AGX ✧ Northeast Caucasian, 17,000 speakers mostly in southern Dagestan
16 букал (bukal) 2018
Ahom: Ahom ✧ AHO ✧ Kra–Dai family, Brahmaputra river valley, extinct by 1800. Unique script.
16 jul (din chet) 2018
Ahtna [Central]: Ahtna [Central] ✧ AHT ✧ Athabaskan, between 30 and 80 speakers, Alaska’s Copper River. Incorporates around 100 Russian loanwords.
16 cots’ na’aaye 2018
Ahtna [Lower]: Ahtna [Lower] ✧ AHT ✧ Another dialect of Ahtna
16 cots’ na’aaye 2018
Ahtna [Mentasa]: Ahtna [Mentasa] ✧ AHT ✧ Another dialect of Ahtna
16 [July unknown] 2018
Ainu: Ainu ✧ AIN ✧ Aboriginal language of Japanese archipelago, ancestry unknown, nearly extinct natively
16 モニヨラプ (moniyorap) 2018
Akan: Akan ✧ AKA ✧ Niger-Congo Language brought to South America by slaves
16 Ayɛwoho-Kitawonsa 2018
Alabama: Alabama ✧ AKZ ✧ Muskogean language, distantly related to Choctaw (q.v.), spoken in Texas
16 hasiholtina istontóklo 2018
Albanian [Gheg]: Albanian [Gheg] ✧ SQI ✧ Indo-European language with its very own branch
16 korrik 2018
Albanian [Tosk]: Albanian [Tosk] ✧ ALS ✧ Dialect (also called Arberesh) spoken in Italy, semi-intelligible with Gheg Albanian (q.v.)
16 korrik 2018
Algonquin: Algonquin ✧ ALQ ✧ Algonquian family, closely related to (but divergent from) Ojibwe (q.v.). 1800 speakers in Quebec and Ontario.
16 miskwímin gizis 2018
Alsatian: Alsatian ✧ GSW ✧ High German dialect. 100,000 speakers, all bilingual with French.
16 Jüli or Ju;li 2018
Altai: Altai ✧ ATV ✧ Turkic language spoken by 20,000 natively in Siberia’s Altai Mountains
16 jaan izü aı 2018
Alutiiq: Alutiiq ✧ EMS ✧ An Eskimo-Aleut language, indigenous to the Alaska and Kenai Peninsulas and Kodiak Island, with around 200 native speakers. There are two chief dialects, Kodiak and Chugach.
16 Amartut Iraluat 2018
Amharic: Amharic ✧ AMH ✧ Afro-Asiatic. Ethiopia, yes, but the Rastafari also dig it.
16 hamle 2018
Anii: Anii ✧ BLO ✧ A Niger-Congo language spoken by 49,000 in Benin and Togo. Anii observes strict vowel harmony (like Turkic and Uralic languages such as Finnish) and is bitonal.
16 Alalaka kaŋɔrɔ 2018
Apache [Western]: Apache [Western] ✧ APW ✧ Athabaskan family, southeast Arizona, 14,000 native speakers. Acute accents indicate a high tone on a vowel.
16 Nii’ Dichíhé “Red painted face” 2018
Apatani (Tanii): Apatani (Tanii) ✧ APT ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, eastern Himalayas. Most nouns have 2 syllables.
16 milo piilo 2018
Arabic [Levantine]: Arabic [Levantine] ✧ APC ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Semitic. Descended from Ancient North Arabian.
١٦ تموز (tammūz) ٢٠١٨
Arabic [Libyan]: Arabic [Libyan] ✧ AYL ✧ An alternate terminology established under Muammar Gaddafi
١٦ ناصر (nās̱ir) ٢٠١٨
Aragonese: Aragonese ✧ ARG ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in northern Aragon, endangered, mutually intelligible with Spanish.
16 chulio 2018
Arikara: Arikara ✧ ARI ✧ A North American indigenous language from the Caddoan family, related to Pawnee (q.v.) but not mutually intelligible with it. A handful of speakers remain in White Shield, North Dakota.
16 awiriituukaríkat 2018
Aromanian (Vlach): Aromanian (Vlach) ✧ RUP ✧ Romance language. Mistake it for Romanian, though, and they’ll beat you up.
16 curic or iuliu or alunaru 2018
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Savoyard]: Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Savoyard] ✧ FRP ✧ An Arpitan dialect spoken around Savoy in western France
16 julyèt 2018
Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Stéphenois]: Arpitan (Franco-Provençal) [Stéphenois] ✧ FRP ✧ Gallo-Romance, spoken around Saint-Étienne in eastern central France
16 julliét 2018
Assiniboine A: Assiniboine A ✧ ASB ✧ A Siouan language spoken by 150 or so in the northern US/Canadian Plains. Like Dalecarlian (q.v.) and Polish it has nasal vowels signaled with ogoneks, in this case Ą, Į, and Ų.
16 cąpá waštešte hąwí or mnogédu cogą́du hą́wi 2018
Assiniboine B: Assiniboine B ✧ ASB ✧ Alternative terminology
16 wį́bazoką waštéšte hą́wi or ą́bawakątąga hąwi 2018
Asturian: Asturian ✧ AST ✧ Indo-European, Romance, northern Spain (Oviedo/Gijón area). Three genders.
16 xunetu 2018
Atikamekw: Atikamekw ✧ ATJ ✧ Algonquian family, Cree complex, 5500 speakers in southwestern Quebec
16 mikomin pisimw 2018
Austro-Bavarian: Austro-Bavarian ✧ BAR ✧ A language akin to High German but highly divergent from it, tending to use more Latin, spoken in primarily rural areas of Austria, Bavaria, and South Tyrol. Three main dialects.
16 Juli 2018
Avar: Avar ✧ AVA ✧ Northeast Caucasian language spoken in Dagestan and Azerbaijan
16 июлалъул 2018
Aymara: Aymara ✧ AYM ✧ South American indigenous language from the Aymaran family which has only two members, the other being Jaqaru (q.v.). Unusual time/space conceptualization, uses only a, i, and u for vowels.
16 huillka kuti phaxsi 2018

Bafia: Bafia ✧ KSF ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken by 60,000 in southwestern Cameroon. Mostly oral, but efforts at establishing a written standard are underway.
16 ŋwíí akǝ táabɛɛ 2018
Bagirmi: Bagirmi ✧ BMI ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, about 45,000 speakers in Chad and Nigeria. This was the language of the Sultanate of Bagirmi which ruled southeast of Lake Chad between 1523 and 1897.
16 Nap cili 2018
Bagvalal: Bagvalal ✧ KVA ✧ Northeast Caucasian, seriously endangered, 1500 speakers in Dagestan. Bagvalal is only spoken in private; outside the home speakers rely on Avar (q.v.) or Russian.
16 кeугIаламð 2018
Bahasa Banjar: Bahasa Banjar ✧ BJN ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by the Banjarese of South Kalimantan in Indonesia
16 Juli 2018
Bakweri (Mokpwe): Bakweri (Mokpwe) ✧ BGM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, spoken in Cameroon
16 Veyale 2018
Baluchi: Baluchi ✧ BAL ✧ Indo-Iranian language related to Kurdish (q.v.). Uses Pashto and Roman script.
16 jalkašán 2018
Bambara: Bambara ✧ BAM ✧ Niger-Congo, Mande. Two tones, many French loanwords.
16 Zuluyé 2018
Bariai: Bariai ✧ BCH ✧ Austronesian family, Ngero group, 1400 speakers in Papua New Guinea
16 apin paur 2018
Basaa: Basaa ✧ BAS ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four tones, 230,000 speakers in Camaroon.(Not to be confused with Bassa, below.)
16 njeèbaè 2018
Bashkir: Bashkir ✧ BAK ✧ Turkic language spoken in Bashkortostan between the Volga and Urals
16 майай (maiai) 2018
Basque [Biscayan]: Basque [Biscayan] ✧ EUS ✧ Pre-Indo-European language isolate spoken in Pyrenees (Bay of Biscay)
16 garagarril or uztail 2018
Basque [Guipuzcoan]: Basque [Guipuzcoan] ✧ EUS ✧ Basque dialect spoken in Guipuzcoa
16 uztail 2018
Bassa: Bassa ✧ BSQ ✧ Niger-Congo, Kru. Seven vowels with five tones each, spoken by 400,000 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. (Not to be confused with Basaa, above.)
16 Káná-Nyíníí 2018
Batak: Batak ✧ BYA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian family. Unique script. Spoken in north Sumatra.
16 sipaha opat 2018
Bats (Tsova-Tush): Bats (Tsova-Tush) ✧ BBL ✧ Northeast Caucasian, Nakh branch but unintelligible with Chechen or Ingush (q.v.)
16 mkatat 2018
Belarusian (“White Russian”): Belarusian (“White Russian”) ✧ BEL ✧ East Slavic, closely related to Ukrainian (q.v.). Though Belarusian is official in Belarus, only about 12% of the population uses it.
16 ліпеня 2018
Bemba: Bemba ✧ BEM ✧ Niger-Congo family, southern Bantu. Tonal, spoken in Zambia.
16 ichikungulu pepo 2018
Bena: Bena ✧ BEZ ✧ Niger-Congo family, northeast Bantu, spoken in south central Tanzania
16 pa mwedzi gwa saba 2018
Beothuk: Beothuk ✧ BUE ✧ Spoken by a reclusive indigenous Newfoundland tribe, extinct since 1829 with the death of its last speaker, Shanawdithit.
16 kowayaseek 2018
Bezhta (Kapucha): Bezhta (Kapucha) ✧ KAP ✧ Preliterate Northeast Caucasian language spoken by around 6800 in Southern Dagestan.
16 ййул 2018
Bishnupriya: Bishnupriya ✧ BPY ✧ Indo-Aryan, 120,000 native speakers. Uses the rather uncommon Eastern Nagari script.
১৬ jul ২০১৮
Bislama: Bislama ✧ BIS ✧ A creole combining English with Austronesian lanugages. Official in Vanuatu.
16 Julae 2018
Blackfoot (Siksika): Blackfoot (Siksika) ✧ BLA ✧ Algonquian family, unusual pitch system. Montana and southern Alberta.
16 ókonokistsi’tssp 2018
Blin (Bilen): Blin (Bilen) ✧ BYN ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. 70,000 speakers around Keren, Eritrea. Related to Tigrinya (q.v.) and Tigre (Tigrayit).
16 jul (kwerku) 2018
Breton (Armoric): Breton (Armoric) ✧ BRE ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Spoken in Brittany, related to Welsh and Cornish (q.v.).
16 mis gouere 2018
Bukhori (Judaeo-Tajik): Bukhori (Judaeo-Tajik) ✧ BHH ✧ A Persian dialect with Hebrew, Turkic, and Slavic loans spoken by Bukharan Jews living in central Asia and in diaspora communities in Israel and the United States.
16 איִיוּל (iyul) 2018
Bulgarian [Eastern Rup]: Bulgarian [Eastern Rup] ✧ BUL ✧ South Slavic. From the Bulgarian town of Asenovgrad, late 19th century.
16 илинске 2018
Bulgarian [Rhodope]: Bulgarian [Rhodope] ✧ BUL ✧ Another Bulgarian, here from the Rhodope Mountains around Smolyan
16 пéтрувдень 2018
Bulgar: Bulgar ✧ XBO ✧ Presumably Turkic, unrelated to modern Bulgarian (which is South Slavic). Bulgar’s closest modern relative is Chuvash (q.v.).
XVI chille ai MMXVIII
Burgundian (Bourguignon-morvandiau): Burgundian (Bourguignon-morvandiau) ✧  ✧ Endangered Langue d’Oïl spoken in Burgundy. Not to be confused with the East Germanic language also known as Burgundian, extinct since the sixth century, though there are historic overlaps.
16 juyet 2018
Burmese: Burmese ✧ MYA ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in Myanmar/Burma, tonal. Unusual sounds such as unvoiced Ms and Ns, uses special pronouns when speaking to monks.
၁၆ ဇူလိုင် (zulaĩ) ၂၀၁၈
Burushaski: Burushaski ✧ BSK ✧ A language isolate spoken by 87,000 in Northern Pakistan. Actions must often specify how loud something was.
16 makuchum shinikus or asat̪ 2018
Buryat: Buryat ✧ BUA ✧ Mongolic language related to Mongolian and Oirat (q.v.). China, Mongolia, and eastern Russia.
16 долоодугаар һара (doloodugaar hara) 2018

Caddo: Caddo ✧ CAD ✧ Critically endangered member of the Caddoan family, related to Arikara and Pawnee (q.v.), spoken by about two dozen individuals in Caddo County, Oklahoma. Its dialects are mutually intelligible.
16 Nas’-ah’-at-sus 2018
Carrier: Carrier ✧ CRX ✧ Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. A few hundred speakers in British Columbia.
16 talo uzʔ 2018
Catalan: Catalan ✧ CAT ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in Catalonia, Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the country of Andorra where it’s official. Its name comes from the word ‘castle.’
16 de juliol 2018
Central Dusun (Bunduliwan): Central Dusun (Bunduliwan) ✧ DTP ✧ A Malayo-Polynesian language, standardized by the Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah, and spoken by 140,000 in Malaysia and Brunei.
16 Tulan Madas “Clear month” 2018
Cham [Eastern]: Cham [Eastern] ✧ CJM ✧ Malayo-Polynesian. 300,000 speakers in Vietnam.
16 balan tachuh 2018
Chamorro: Chamorro ✧ CHA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, ≈ 60,000 speakers in the Marianas archipelago
16 hulio 2018
Chatino [Zona Alta]: Chatino [Zona Alta] ✧ CLY ✧ Zapotecan language spoken by 23,000 in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. It has ten tones and uses nasal vowels.
16 ko' san ndiyan 2018
Chechen A: Chechen A ✧ CHE ✧ Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, related to Ingush (q.v.). It features an unusually large vowel inventory for a Caucasian language. Traditionally written with the Georgian alphabet, later the Arabic, finally the Cyrillic.
16 чиле (čile) 2018
Chechen B: Chechen B ✧ CHE ✧ A second alternative terminology for Chechen
16 мятсел бутт (miatsel butt) 2018
Chechen C: Chechen C ✧ CHE ✧ A third alternative terminology for Chechen
16 товбецан бутт (towbietsan butt) 2018
Cherokee [Overhill]: Cherokee [Overhill] ✧ CHR ✧ Iroquoian family, Oklahoma. This is the Cherokee standard upon which Sequoyah based his unique script; further along he pursuaded the Eastern Cherokee speakers of North Carolina to adopt it.
16 ᎫᏰᏉᏂ (Guyequoni) 2018
Chevak Cup’ik: Chevak Cup’ik ✧  ✧ Seriously endangered Yupi’k (q.v.) sub-dialect. Hooper Bay, Alaska.
16 Essgun 2018
Chewa (Nyanja): Chewa (Nyanja) ✧ NYA ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantoid. Spoken in Malawi and Zambia.
16 mwezi wa Julayi 2018
Cheyenne (Tsisinstsistots): Cheyenne (Tsisinstsistots) ✧ CHY ✧ Algonquian family. Four principal tones, three principal vowels (a, e, o) which in some cases can can be voiceless. About 2000 native speakers in Montana & Oklahoma.
16 Meaneeše’he 2018
Chickasaw: Chickasaw ✧ CIC ✧ Muskogean family, about 75 speakers total in Oklahoma, USA
16 Chulai 2018
Chilcotin: Chilcotin ✧ CLC ✧ Athabaskan, approximately 860 native speakers in Chilcotin Country, central British Columbia. Chilcotin is bitonal and exhibits consonant harmony.
16 Jaŝ Sa 2018
Chimané [Mosetén]: Chimané [Mosetén] ✧ CAS ✧ Language isolate (?) spoken by around 2000 north of La Paz, Bolivia
16 yuwutidye’yatyi’ ïwaj 2018
Choctaw: Choctaw ✧ CHO ✧ Muskogean, related to Chickasaw (q.v.). South-central USA, 18,000 speakers.
16 Chulai 2018
Choyo (Queyu): Choyo (Queyu) ✧ QVY ✧ A Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic language of Yajiang and Xinlong Counties in Sichuan with about 7000 speakers. Choyo is closely related to another Qiangic language, Zhaba, spoken by a similar number in Yajiang and Daofu Counties.
16 da35wa55dẽ35pa53 2018
Chukchi: Chukchi ✧ CKT ✧ About 10,000 speakers in extreme eastern Siberia. Uses vowel harmony. Also, words cannot begin or end with consonant blends.
16 н’эййъилгын (n’ejj”ilgyn) 2018
Chuvash: Chuvash ✧ CHV ✧ Turkic, spoken in the Urals. Features “hard” versus “soft” words.
I/X ută III/X✳✳
Circassian (Cherkess) [Adyghe]: Circassian (Cherkess) [Adyghe] ✧ ADY ✧ Northwest Caucasian language. Has 50-60 consonant sounds, mutually intelligible with Circassian [Kabardian] (q.v.).
16 бадзэуэгъуэ or бэдзэогъу 2018
Circassian (Cherkess) [Kabardian]: Circassian (Cherkess) [Kabardian] ✧ KBD ✧ The other major Circassian dialect, also called East Circassian. Mutually intelligible with Circassian [Adyghe] (q.v.).
16 бадзэуэгъуэ (or beʒewéγw) 2018
Clackamas: Clackamas ✧ WAC ✧ Native American Chinookan family, northwestern Oregon, extinct
16 waqxu’li 2018
Comorian [Maore](Shimaore): Comorian [Maore](Shimaore) ✧ SWB ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu. 80,000 speakers on French islands of Mayotte.
16 jiwiye 2018
Cornish: Cornish ✧ COR ✧ Celtic, Brythonic. Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, natively extinct but nowadays actively studied and taught.
16 mys Gortheren 2018
Corsican: Corsican ✧ COS ✧ Indo-European, Romance, and unlike Sardinian [q.v.] mutually intelligible with Italian. Spoken on Corsica, endangered.
16 lugliu 2018
Creek: Creek ✧ MUS ✧ Muskogean family, tonal with nazalizations, Oklahoma
16 hiyucee 2018
Cree: Cree ✧ CRE ✧ Algonquian family. Formerly creolized with French & Scottish Gaelic.
16 opaskwuwipizun 2018
Crimean Tatar: Crimean Tatar ✧ CRH ✧ Half a million speakers. Although Turkic like Tatar, CT is not considered a Tatar dialect and they are not mutually intelligible.
16 oraq ayı 2018
Croatian: Croatian ✧ HRV ✧ South Slavic, spoken in Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, and parts of Serbia. Uses the Roman alphabet as opposed to Serbian which uses Cyrillic.
16 srpanj 2018
Cuicatec: Cuicatec ✧ CUX ✧ A language of the Oto-Manguean family spoken natively by 13,000 in the towns of Teutila and Tepeuxila in western Oaxaca, Mexico. Cuicatec is tonal and forms verb tenses by attaching one of four different prefixes.
16 iyuu neachea 2018
Cuman (Polovetsian): Cuman (Polovetsian) ✧ QWM ✧ Turkic language spoken by Cuman-Kipchaks in eastern Europe. Extinct by 1800. The invading Polovetsians portrayed in Borodin’s opera Prince Igor would have spoken this language.
16 orta kz ay 2018
Curonian: Curonian ✧ XCU ✧ Extinct Balto-Slavic language spoken until the 16th century in parts of modern Latvia, Lithuania, and Germany.
16 juli 2018
Czech (Bohemian): Czech (Bohemian) ✧ CZE ✧ West Slavic, mutually intelligible with Slovak
16 červenec 2018

Dagaare: Dagaare ✧ DGA ✧ Niger-Congo, Gur branch. Unusual consonant blends such as GB, KP, and MGM.
16 KyuuraayOpoisobO 2018
Dakota (Dakhota): Dakota (Dakhota) ✧ DAK ✧ Siouan family, mutually intelligible with Lakota. Around 20,000 speakers in an area centered on eastern South Dakota and taking in parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana.
16 Mdokecokawi 2018
Dalecarlian (Elfdalian): Dalecarlian (Elfdalian) ✧ OVD ✧ North Germanic, endangered. Unlike Swedish, uses nasalized vowels (Ą, Ę, Į, Ų, Y̨, Ą̊ ) and like Icelandic uses eth (Ð).
16 juli 2018
Dalmatian: Dalmatian ✧ DLM ✧ Romance language once spoken on the Adriatic east coast. Its last surviving native speaker was marine mail carrier Tuone Udaina, who died in a roadwork accident in 1898.
16 giul 2018
Danish [Premodern/Folk]: Danish [Premodern/Folk] ✧ DAN ✧ Traditional Danish before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions
16 Ormemåned 2018
Deg Xinag: Deg Xinag ✧ ING ✧ Athabaskan language, virtually extinct. Area around the lower Yukon River, Alaska.
16 Vinginh nalay ilaxdi “The month dog salmon come” 2018
Dena’ina [Outer Inlet]: Dena’ina [Outer Inlet] ✧ TFN ✧ Athabaskan, seriously endangered, Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula
16 qughuna ni’u 2018
Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan): Denaakk’e (Koyukon Athabascan) ✧ KOY ✧ Athabascan, spoken by about 300 in east central Alaska, 3 dialects
16 Menenh Tok’eggoyhk’u̶hdelaayee 2018
Denya: Denya ✧ ANV ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantoid, Mamfe. Spoken in Cameroon by around 11,000
16 zuluyé 2018
Dhivehi (Maldivian): Dhivehi (Maldivian) ✧ DIV ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, uses the exclusive right-to-left Thāna script which unlike Arabic explicitly shows all vowels. Republic of Maldives.
16 jul (julaʔi) 2018
Dinka [Northwestern]: Dinka [Northwestern] ✧ DIW ✧ Nilo-Saharan, spoken in Sudan. Refugee population in Jacksonville, Florida.
16 bilthin 2018
Ditidaht (Nitinaht): Ditidaht (Nitinaht) ✧ DTD ✧ Wakashan family, Vancouver Island. No nasal consonants, virtually extinct.
16 ƛ’ix̣apax̣paał 2018
Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ): Dogrib (Tłı̨chǫ) ✧ DGR ✧ Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Canada Northwest Territories, 2600 speakers.
16 Sôömba Nàzhèe Zaà 2018
Dutch [Old]: Dutch [Old] ✧ ODT ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, spoken 9th to 12th centuries ce. Literary examples include The Leiden Willeram, a commentary on the Song of Solomon, and Hebban olla vogala (“Have all birds begun nests…” ), both from c. 1100.
XVI jul (hooimaand) MMXVIII
Dzongkha: Dzongkha ✧ DZO ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, ≈ 170,000 native speakers (and an additional 470,000 non-native) in Bhutan where it is the only official language.
16 jul (spyi.zlaw.bdun.pa) 2018

Edo (Bini): Edo (Bini) ✧ BIN ✧ Niger-Congo family. Spoken by Benin Empire descendents.
16 uki iviema 2018
Emilian-Romagnol: Emilian-Romagnol ✧ EGL/RGN ✧ Romance language spoken Italy (administrative Region of Emilia-Romagna and the Province of Pesaro and Urbino) and in San Marino. Its two principal dialects are Emiliano and Romangnolo, both of which are separately recognized by UNESCO as “worthy of protection.”
16 lój 2018
English [Old] (Anglo-Saxon): English [Old] (Anglo-Saxon) ✧ ANG ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, spoken 5th to 12th centuries ce. Literary examples are Beowulf (975-1025) and the Charter of Cnut (c. 1017).
XVI jul (Æfterra Līþa) MMXVIII
Erromintxela: Erromintxela ✧ EMX ✧ A Basque/Romani hybrid language spoken by around a thousand Pyranees-dwelling Roma
16 uçtaïlla 2018
Ersu [Ganluo]: Ersu [Ganluo] ✧ ERS ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic, around 13,000 speakers in western Sichuan. Like Nakhi (q.v.) this language employs a pictographic script for folkloric purposes, though in this case the colors carry additional lexographic meaning.
16 tshı55i55ɬɑ33 2018
Erzya: Erzya ✧ MYV ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to [but quite distinct from] Moksha (q.v.)
16 медьков (med’kov) 2018
Eskayan: Eskayan ✧ ESY ✧ Famously obscure Philippine language, extinct but heavily studied. Possibly a Cebuano-based cryptolect.
16 hubion 2018
Estonian: Estonian ✧ EST ✧ Finno-Ugric. Features 3 vowel lengths, 14 noun cases. Among some speakers Estonian and Finnish are mutually intelligible though there are many “false friends,” i.e., words that look and sound identical but carry one meaning in Estonian but a different one in Finnish.
16 heinakuu 2018
Estonian [Southern]: Estonian [Southern] ✧ VRO ✧ Finno-Ugric. In many respects closer to Võro than standard Estonian.
16 heinakuu 2018
Etruscan: Etruscan ✧ ETT ✧ Language isolate spoken on the Italian peninsula, last recorded use was in 410 ce. Roman emperor Claudius wrote several books on the language. Some of our words (antenna, ceremony, person, histrionic) likely derive from pre-Latin Etruscan roots.
XΛI jul (turane) ⊕⊕XIIX
Even (Lamut): Even (Lamut) ✧ EVE ✧ Altaic, Tungusic. Endangered, with 7000-odd speakers in Siberia.
16 дюгани хэе (djugani ḣėje) 2018
Evenki (Solon): Evenki (Solon) ✧ EVN ✧ Tungusic, related to Even (q.v.) but four times as many speakers. In descending order of frequency, Evenki appears in Roman, Cyrillic, and Mongolian characters.
16 irkin 2018
Ewe: Ewe ✧ EWE ✧ Niger-Congo family, tonal, spoken by 5 million in western Africa. A tilde nazalizes a vowel: ã, ẽ, ɛ̃, ɔ̃, ĩ, õ, and ũ.
16 Siamlↄm 2018
Extremaduran: Extremaduran ✧ EXT ✧ Romance language spoken in west central Spain. Some differences from Spanish/Castilian: Infinitive verbs end in L, questions are reinforced by prepending the particles “lo,” “lu,” “pu,” or “pui.”
16 júliu or juliu 2018
Eyak: Eyak ✧ EYA ✧ Famously imperiled Athabaskan language, whose last native speaker, Marie Smith Jones (Eyak: udAch' k'uqAXA'a'ch — “a sound that calls people from afar”), died in Anchorage, Alaska in 2008.
16 ɂu·nahd ɂiɬǝc’ą·ɢ 2018

Fe’fe’: Fe’fe’ ✧ FMP ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantoid. 120,000 speakers around Bafang, Cameroon.
16 ntumbhi ngofat 2018
Flemish [West-Vlams]: Flemish [West-Vlams] ✧ VLS ✧ A highly divergent Dutch dialect with 1.2 million speakers
16 juli 2018
Fon: Fon ✧ FON ✧ Niger-Congo, Gbe. Spoken by 2.2 million in Togo and Benin in over 50 dialects.
16 liya sùn 2018
Frankish (Old Franconian): Frankish (Old Franconian) ✧ FRK ✧ Germanic language spoken in medieval France between the 4th and 9th centuries, evolved into Old Dutch (q.v.). Charlemagne spoke a dialect of Frankish.
XVI Hewimanoþ MMXVIII
Frisian [North]: Frisian [North] ✧ FRR ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, about 10,000 speakers
16 jüüle 2018
Frisian [West/Lauwer]: Frisian [West/Lauwer] ✧ FRY ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic
16 heamoanne “haymaking month” 2018
Frisian [West/Schiermonnikoog]: Frisian [West/Schiermonnikoog] ✧ FRY ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, nearly extinct (< 100 speakers)
16 haimond 2018
Friulian: Friulian ✧ FUR ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Spoken in northeastern Italy.
16 lui 2018
Fula: Fula ✧ FUL ✧ Niger-Congo family, western Africa, official in Senegal. Most commonly written with the Roman alphabet, less so with the Arabic, but a unique alphabet for Fula called Adlam arose in the 1980s and has been widely adopted.
16 morso 2018
Fur: Fur ✧ FVR ✧ Tentatively attributed to the Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in south central Darfur in western Sudan.
16 Kuyweél 2018
Futunan: Futunan ✧ FUT ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken on Futuna Island and New Caledonia
16 sulio 2018

Gaelic [Irish]: Gaelic [Irish] ✧ GLE ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Goidelic. Spoken as a first language along the western coast of Ireland. It was also once widely spoken in Newfoundland but disappeared sometime in the early 20th century.
16 Mí Iúil 2018
Gaelic [Scottish Archaic]: Gaelic [Scottish Archaic] ✧ GLA ✧ As Scottish Gaelic above, but older
16 Mìos Deireannach an t-Samhraidh 2018
Gaelic [Scottish]: Gaelic [Scottish] ✧ GLA ✧ Like Irish Gaelic (q.v.), also Celtic, Goidelic. This is Highland Gaelic; Lowland is extinct.
16 An t-Iuchar 2018
Gagauz: Gagauz ✧ GAG ✧ Turkic language spoken in Moldova, Ukraine, Turkey, Russia
16 орак айы (orak ayı) 2018
Galician: Galician ✧ GLG ✧ Sharply divergent Portuguese spoken in Galicia (northern Spain). Fidel Castroʼs father was Galician and emigrated to make his sugar cane fortune.
16 xullo 2018
Gallong (Galo) [Lare]: Gallong (Galo) [Lare] ✧ ADL ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Tani branch. Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.
16 tenlòo 2018
Gallo: Gallo ✧ ROA-GAL ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Approx. 28,000 speakers in the upper Brittany region. Gallo bears some mutual intelligibility with Norman (q.v.) dialects, though it lacks their Old Norse influences.
16 julhet 2018
Garifuna: Garifuna ✧ CAB ✧ Arawakan language with French and Carib loans, Central America
16 sedü hati 2018
Gaulish: Gaulish ✧ XTG ✧ Indo-European, Celtic. Pre-Roman France, extinct by 7th century ce.
II samonii MMXVIII
Ga: Ga ✧ GAA ✧ Niger-Congo family, Kwa division, first written in 1764. Tonal.
16 Maawe 2018
Georgian: Georgian ✧ KAT ✧ Kartvelian group, lacks an F sound natively. Related to Svan but completely unintelligible with it.
ივ ივლისი (iwilisi) ციჱ
Georgian [Old]: Georgian [Old] ✧ KAT ✧ Georgian from approximately 800-1000 ce
16 მკათათვე (mk’atatve) “Month of harvests” 2018
German [Old High]: German [Old High] ✧ GOH ✧ Earliest attested German language, c. 500-1050 ce
XVI Hewimānōd MMXVIII
German [Ripuarian]: German [Ripuarian] ✧ KSH ✧ Indo-European, West Germanic, Central Franconian. Cologne region.
16 Juuli 2018
German [mid 17th century]: German [mid 17th century] ✧ GER ✧ The High German shown on a 1665 calendar
16 Heumond 2018
Gitxsan: Gitxsan ✧ GIT ✧ Tsimshianic family, British Columbia, < 1000 speakers
16 hlox̱sa 'wiihun 2018
Gothic: Gothic ✧ GOT ✧ Indo-European, East Germanic, extinct by 10th century
XVI jul (wiudamenoþs) MMXVIII
Greenlandic (Kalaallisut): Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) ✧ KAL ✧ Language from the Eskimo-Aleut family, now official in Greenland
16 Juuli 2018
Griko (Grecanic): Griko (Grecanic) ✧  ✧ Variety of modern Greek with about 50% mutual intelligibility with it. About 28,000 speakers in the toe and heel of Italy.
16 Alonàri 2018
Guaraní: Guaraní ✧ GUG ✧ Tupian family. Spoken in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay.
16 jasypokõi 2018
Guernésiais: Guernésiais ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. A Norman dialect spoken by about 200 on the Channel Island of Guernsey. Victor Hugo contemporary George Métivier (1790–1881) was a widely celebrated author in the Guernésiais dialect.
16 juillet 2018
Guhu-Samane: Guhu-Samane ✧ GHS ✧ Binanderean family isolate, Papua New Guinea, unrelated to any known language
16 Dzurai 2018
Guiqiong: Guiqiong ✧ GQI ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Qiangic. A preliterate, poorly documented language spoken in Sichuan and Tibet. Four tones (33, 35, 53, 55), borrows heavily from Chinese. There are about 6000 native speakers who use Chinese outside their villages.
16 dε̃35pu53 2018
Gullah (Sea Islands Creole): Gullah (Sea Islands Creole) ✧ GUL ✧ English-based, Niger-Congo influences. “Kumbaya” comes from Gullah.
16 Jooloy 2018
Gusilay: Gusilay ✧ GSL ✧ Niger-Congo family, Jola branch, spoken by 15,000 in southwest Senegal. Its speakers also use other languages such as Wolof (q.v.), Mandinka, and Pulaar but their literacy in Gusilay itself is less than 1%.
16 Fúriilo 2018
Gutnish (Gotlandic): Gutnish (Gotlandic) ✧ - ✧ Swedish dialect spoken by between 2000 and 5000 on the islands of Gotland and Fårö (not to be confused with the Faroe Islands). Defined as endangered by UNESCO, it shows vowel shifts and much vocabulary that differs from Swedish.
16 jäuli 2018
Gwich’in: Gwich’in ✧ GWI ✧ Na-Dené family, Athabaskan. 700 speakers in Alaska + northwest Canada.
16 Łuk Choo Zhrii 2018

Haida: Haida ✧ HAI ✧ Language isolate native to the Haida Gwaii archipelago off the coast of British Columbia, with 14 reported speakers. It has no adjectives, getting around that by using verbs to assign qualities.
16 Chíin Kungáay “Salmon moon” 2018
Haitian Creole: Haitian Creole ✧ HAT ✧ French-derived but borrows from Taíno, Portuguese, African languages
16 jiyè 2018
Hakha Chin (Lai): Hakha Chin (Lai) ✧ CNH ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, spoken in Burma, Bangladesh, and India
16 Julai thla 2018
Hakka: Hakka ✧ HAK ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Uses NG sounds and final M, unlike, say, Mandarin Chinese.
16 tit ŋiet 2018
Harari: Harari ✧ HAR ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Semitic, ≈ 25,000 speakers in Ethiopia. Once written with Arabic script, but nowadays with the Ethiopic abugida and the Roman alphabet.
16 sátí-khá warhay 2018
Havasupai-Hualapai: Havasupai-Hualapai ✧ YUF ✧ Yuman family, around 1500 speakers in northwestern Arizona
16 A’A Ga Ma:va Hla 2018
Hiligaynon (Ilongo): Hiligaynon (Ilongo) ✧ HIL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, Visaya group, spoken in Philippines.
16 jul (hidapdapan) 2018
Hmong: Hmong ✧ HMN ✧ Hmong-Mien family. Seven tones, including creaky and breathy.
16 Xya hlis ntuj 2018
Holikachuk: Holikachuk ✧ HOI ✧ Athabaskan language, central Alaska. Last fluent speaker died in March 2012.
16 Mininh K’ilagh 2018
Homshetsi (Hamshen): Homshetsi (Hamshen) ✧ AXM(?) ✧ Archaic Armenian dialect spoken by 14,000 in Turkey, written only since 1995. Homshetsi and modern Armenian are not mutually intelligible.
16 փեթել ամիս (petel amis) 2018
Hopi: Hopi ✧ HOP ✧ Uto-Aztecan family, about 7000 native speakers in northeastern Arizona. Bitonal with four distinct dialects identified by linguist Benjamin Whorf that differ in their consonant inventory.
16 Kelmuya “Fledgling Raptor Moon” 2018
Hungarian [Premodern]: Hungarian [Premodern] ✧ OHU ✧ Church-based Hungarian, before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions
16 szent jákob hava 2018
Hungarian [Reform Era]: Hungarian [Reform Era] ✧ HUN ✧ Hungarian during the nationalistic fervor of 1825-1848
16 nyárhó 2018

Iaai: Iaai ✧ IAI ✧ Spoken by around 4000 on Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia. Sports a highly unusual set of sounds for a Polynesian language, and stands alone in the world for its voiceless retroflex nasal.
16 juulai 2018
Idu Mishmi (Chulikata): Idu Mishmi (Chulikata) ✧ CLK ✧ Sino-Tibetan, endangered. India’s Dibang Valley, 3 dialects.
16 उ़ल़ुम् (ɨlɨlm) 2018
Igbo: Igbo ✧ IBO ✧ Niger-Congo, tonal, proverb-heavy, Nigeria. Actor Chiwetel Ejiofor (Amistad, Twelve Years a Slave, etc.) is Igbo.
16 ónwa ásaàn’áfò 2018
Ingrian (Izhorian): Ingrian (Izhorian) ✧ IZH ✧ Finno-Ugric language with only 120 speakers around Gulf of Finland
16 juuli 2018
Ingush: Ingush ✧ INH ✧ Northeast Caucasian family, Nakh branch, tonal. Related to Chechen (q.v.) and like that language it went through a Georgian, Arabic, and finally Cyrillic alphabet writing phase.
16 кӀимаре (k’imare) 2018
Inuktitut [Nunavik]: Inuktitut [Nunavik] ✧ IKU ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, north of Canada’s tree line. There are some 35,000 speakers and, unlike the case with most “minority” languages, that number is growing. Its syllabary was first conceived by Moravian missionaries in the 19th century.
16 (Tuvaijaruut) 2018
Inuktitut [Qikiqtaaluk]: Inuktitut [Qikiqtaaluk] ✧ IKU ✧ Inuktitut terminology used in the Baffin Region
16 (Tirigluit) 2018
Inupiaq [North Slope]: Inupiaq [North Slope] ✧ IPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, extreme northwestern Alaska
16 ieukkuksaivik 2018
Isan: Isan ✧ TTS ✧ A group of Lao dialects spoken in northeastern Thailand by ethnic Isans.
16 garagadakom 2018
Istriot (Rovignese): Istriot (Rovignese) ✧ IST ✧ Romance language spoken by around 400 on Croatia’s Istrian Peninsula, closely related to extinct Dalmatian (q.v.). Not to be confused with Istro-Romanian (1100 speakers) or the Istrian dialect of Venetian.
16 loûio 2018
Itelmen: Itelmen ✧ ITL ✧ The sole surviving Kamchatkan language, spoken by fewer than 100 in and around the villages Kovran and Verkhnee Khayryuzovo on the Kamchatka Peninsula.
16 эхтемстакоач (eχtemstakoač) 2018

Jèrriais: Jèrriais ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Norse influences. A Norman dialect spoken by 3000 on the Channel Island of Jersey. Actress and socialite Lillie Langtry (1853-1929) quite famously spoke Jèrriais.
16 juilet 2018
Japanese [Premodern]: Japanese [Premodern] ✧ OJP ✧ Dating from the Heian Period (794-1185)
16 文月 (fumizuki) “Month of literature” 2018
Jaqaru: Jaqaru ✧ JQR ✧ With Aymara (q.v.), the other member of the Aymaran family, natively spoken by 740 in the Yauyos Province of the Lima Region in Peru. Like Aymara it relies solely on a, i, and u for vowels.
16 júliyu 2018
Jarai: Jarai ✧ JRA ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language related to Cham (q.v.), spoken in Vietnam and Cambodia
16 blan tơjuh 2018
Jerba Berber: Jerba Berber ✧ JBN ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Zenati branch, spoken on the Tunisian island of Jerba — the supposed home of the Lotus Eaters of Greek folklore.
16 yulyu 2018
Jingpho (Kachin): Jingpho (Kachin) ✧ KAC ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Bramaputran. Kachin State, Burma, and Yunan Province, China. Five tones, commonly written with the Roman alphabet.
16 shimări 2018
Jju: Jju ✧ KAJ ✧ Niger-Congo, West Plateau. 300,000 speakers, Nigeria.
16 Hywan A̱tyirin 2018

K’iche’ (Quiché): K’iche’ (Quiché) ✧ QUC ✧ Mayan family, spoken by around a million in Guatemala
16 uwuq ik’ 2018
Kabiye: Kabiye ✧ KBP ✧ Niger-Congo, Gur. Spoken by 1.2 million in Togo, Benin, and Ghana.
16 lubɛ fenaɣ 2018
Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean): Kabuverdianu (Cape Verdean) ✧ KEA ✧ The oldest surviving creole, based on 15th century Portuguese
16 julhu 2018
Kabyle (Taqbaylit): Kabyle (Taqbaylit) ✧ KAB ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, spoken in Algeria. Masculine nouns begin with A (ⵔ); feminine nouns begin and end with T (ⵜ).
16 ⵢⵓⵍⵢⵓ (yulyu) 2018
Kadazan Dusun [Central Bundu-Liwan]: Kadazan Dusun [Central Bundu-Liwan] ✧ DTP ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Kadazan and Dusun people in Malaysia
16 Tulan Madas “Clear month” 2018
Kainji [Piti-Atsam]: Kainji [Piti-Atsam] ✧ CCH/PCN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Platoid. Spoken by around 30,000 in Nigeria.
16 pen atariba 2018
Kalapuya: Kalapuya ✧ KYL ✧ Tiny language family once spoken in Western Oregon, extinct
16 Ameku 2018
Kalenjin (Nandi): Kalenjin (Nandi) ✧ KLN ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in east Africa’s Rift Valley
16 roptui 2018
Kanza (Kaw): Kanza (Kaw) ✧ KSK ✧ A language from the Siouan family spoken by the Kaw people of Kansas, nominally extinct. The last native speakers were Maud McCauley Rowe (d. 1978), Ralph Pepper (d. 1982), and Walter Kekahbah (d. 1983).
16 cedóⁿga kúyughabe 2018
Kapingamarangi (Kirinit): Kapingamarangi (Kirinit) ✧ KPG ✧ Polynesian language with around 3000 speakers on the Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei Islands of Micronesia
16 hidu malama 2018
Karachay-Balkar: Karachay-Balkar ✧ KRC ✧ Turkic language spoken in the Kabardino-Balkaria region of the north Caucasus. Closely related to Kumyk [q.v.].
16 элия ай 2018
Karakalpak: Karakalpak ✧ KAA ✧ Turkic, closely related to Kazakh (q.v.), about 400,000 speakers in Uzbekistan
16 әсет (ha’set) 2018
Karang: Karang ✧ KZR ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Four dialects, 18,000 speakers in Camaroon.
16 few vbor 2018
Karelian: Karelian ✧ KRL ✧ Finno-Ugric. Only non-Karelian spoilsports call it a Finnish dialect.
16 heinükuu 2018
Karelian [Livvi/Olonets]: Karelian [Livvi/Olonets] ✧ KRL ✧ About 30,000 speakers, mostly clustered northeast of Saint Petersburg
16 heinykuudu 2018
Karen (S'gaw): Karen (S'gaw) ✧ KAR ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, spoken by four million in Myanmar and Thailand
၁၆ jul (lah ghoh) ၂၀၁၈
Kaska: Kaska ✧ KKZ ✧ Na-Dené, Athabaskan. Fewer than 300 native speakers in towns in the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and northern British Columbia. Tonal with contrastive vowel length and nazalization.
16 Etsets Sā “Molted duck month” 2018
Kayan [Baram]: Kayan [Baram] ✧ KCT ✧ A Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in central Borneo, in two dialects of weak interintelligibity: Baram and Rejang
16 bulan tusu 2018
Kazakh: Kazakh ✧ KAZ ✧ Altaic, Turkic. Cyrillic alphabet, plans to switch to Roman.
16 шілде (šilde) 2018
Keresan: Keresan ✧ KEE/KJQ ✧ Language isolate group spoken in New Mexico. Some vowels are whispered.
16 sina kisraiti 2018
Ket: Ket ✧ KET ✧ The only surviving language from the Yeniseian family and seriously endangered, with 150 speakers in Siberia’s Yenisei River valley
16 сюйдоӄ ӄип (sjujdoq qip;) 2018
Khakas [Koybal]: Khakas [Koybal] ✧ KJH ✧ Turkic language spoken in the Khakassia Republic, north of Altai Mountains
16 toz-ai 2018
Khakas [Sagay]: Khakas [Sagay] ✧ KJH ✧ Another dialect of Khakas
16 tos ayï 2018
Khanty (Ostyak): Khanty (Ostyak) ✧ KCA ✧ Finno-Ugric language related to Mansi (q.v.) and Hungarian. 12,000 speakers.
16 йәңк тӫй тыӆәс 2018
Khasi: Khasi ✧ KHA ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, spoken in the Meghalaya state in India. Uses the Roman alphabet, deleting C, F, Q, V, X, and G (by itself) but adding Ng, Ï, and Ñ.
16 naitung 2018
Khmer (Cambodian): Khmer (Cambodian) ✧ KHM ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, Mon-Khmer branch, heavy Sanskrit influences
16 jul (kak ka da) 2018
Khoekhoe (Nama): Khoekhoe (Nama) ✧ NAQ ✧ A language from the Khoe family spoken by about 300,000 in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. It’s a tonal language with 20 clicks and 11 other non-click consonants.
16 ǂkhoesaob 2018
Khowar: Khowar ✧ KHW ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, 450,000 speakers mostly in Pakistan. Five dialects.
16 yugh 2018
Kiga (Rukiga): Kiga (Rukiga) ✧ CGG ✧ Niger-Congo, Central Bantu. Uganda and Rwanda.
16 Okwamushanju 2018
Kiliwa: Kiliwa ✧ KLB ✧ Yuman language, 50 speakers, Baja California. Word for Pacific Ocean is Kuñím.
16 [July unknown] 2018
Kiribati (Gilbertese): Kiribati (Gilbertese) ✧ GIL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, 120,000 speakers. Name pronounced KEER-i-bass, as natively this language has no S and so uses the digraph TI to indicate that sound from foreign loanss. Interestingly this includes the name they use for their own land, a local rendering of “Gilberts” after an early European explorer.
16 Tuurai 2018
Kokborok (Tripuri): Kokborok (Tripuri) ✧ TRP ✧ Sino-Tibetan language of India and Bangladesh. Uses high and low tones.
16 remsni talni mung 2018
Komi (Ziryan): Komi (Ziryan) ✧ KOM ✧ Uralic, Finno-Ugric. Spoken by 220,000 in Russia’s Komi Republic.
16 сора (sora) 2018
Kom: Kom ✧ BKM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Tri-tonal, 127,000 speakers in northwest Camaroon
16 njoñ njoynsí 2018
Kongo: Kongo ✧ KON ✧ Bantu language spoken in Angola and both Congos. The words zombie and goober, and possibly funky, are Kongo loans.
16 sánza ya sámbó 2018
Korku: Korku ✧ KFQ ✧ Austro-Asiatic, Munda. 480,000 speakers in rural central and eastern India.
16 cikhal bhave 2018
Koyukon: Koyukon ✧ KOY ✧ Athabaskan, about 300 speakers total speakers around the middle Yukon and Koyukuk Rivers, first documented in 1898
16 Noolaaghanogha’ 2018
Kumeyaay (Central Diegueño): Kumeyaay (Central Diegueño) ✧ DIH ✧ Yuman family, spoken by ≈ 400 in southern California and the Baja
16 halamrtinya 2018
Kumyk: Kumyk ✧ KUM ✧ Turkic language spoken by about 400,000 in Dagestan. Influenced by northeast Caucasian languages (Avar, Dargwa, Chechen) as well as Ossetian and Russian. (Not to be confused with Cuman, which is extinct.)
16 инныр (innyr) 2018
Kurdish [Kurmanji]: Kurdish [Kurmanji] ✧ KMR ✧ Indo-European family, Indo-Iranian. The dialect of 75% of Kurdish speakers.
16 tîrmeh 2018
Kurdish [Sorani]: Kurdish [Sorani] ✧ CKB ✧ The Kurdish dialect second in number of speakers to Kurmanji
16 tamûz 2018
Kutenai (Ktunaxa): Kutenai (Ktunaxa) ✧ KUT ✧ Language isolate spoken by 100 (British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho). No distinction between voiced versus unvoiced consonants, word order is flexible.
16 ¢ulay 2018
Kven: Kven ✧ FKV ✧ A seriously endangered Finnic language spoken by a few thousand mostly in the communities of Storfjord and Porsanger in Northern Norway. Kven and Finnish are mutually intelligible.
16 juulikuu 2018
Kwak'wala: Kwak'wala ✧ KWK ✧ A language from the Wakashan family with around 500 speakers, native to the Queen Charlotte Strait off the northeastern tip of Vancouver Island. It exhibits an uncommonly wide consonant inventory, including ejectives.
16 ninak̓wa̱nx̱ 2018
Kyrgyz: Kyrgyz ✧ KIR ✧ Altaic family, Turkic. Spoken by 4 million in Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China.
16 teke 2018

Lach: Lach ✧  ✧ is either a dialect of Czech, Polish, or Silesian — depending on whom you believe. Óndra Łysohorsky (1905-1989), arguably the most celebrated Lach poet who resolutely refused to compose in either Polish or Czech, almost singlehandedly set the standard for literary Lach.
16 lipjec 2018
Ladakhi (Bhoti): Ladakhi (Bhoti) ✧ LBJ ✧ A Sino-Tibetan language spoken by around 130,000 in India, Nepal, China, and Pakistan. Ladakhi and Tibetan are closely related but not mutually intelligible.
16 dawa dun pa 2018
Ladin [Badiotto]: Ladin [Badiotto] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin is a Romance language related to Romansh (q.v.). This particular dialect is spoken by a few in the South Tyrol.
16 lugio 2018
Ladin [Cadorean]: Ladin [Cadorean] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin dialect of a handful of speakers in Cadore in the Italian province of Belluno bordering on Austria
16 luio 2018
Ladin [Fassa Valley]: Ladin [Fassa Valley] ✧ LLD ✧ Another Ladin dialect, 600 speakers in Trentino in the Italian Alpines
16 messèl 2018
Ladin [Gardenese]: Ladin [Gardenese] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin dialect, 8000 speakers in the Dolomites of South Tyrol in northern Italy
16 messel 2018
Ladin [Nones]: Ladin [Nones] ✧ LLD ✧ Ladin dialect, 30,000 speakers in the Non Valley of northern Italy. Whether Nones should be considered a dialect of Ladin or simply another Gallo-Italic/Romance language on its own is still open to debate.
16 lui 2018
Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo): Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish or Judezmo) ✧ LAD ✧ Medieval Spanish substrate with Hebrew, Arabic, Turkish loans. Spoken by Sephardic Jews worldwide. Historically, printed Ladino has used the 15th century Hebrew script called Rashi, shown here.
810x2 (gúlio) jul 7xx9
Lahu: Lahu ✧ LHU ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, spoken in China, Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos
16 jōlāi 2018
Lakota: Lakota ✧ LKT ✧ Siouan-Catawban family, spoken by ≈ 6000 in the US Dakotas. Heard in the 1990 movie Dances with Wolves.
16 {July uncertain} 2018
Lak: Lak ✧ LBE ✧ Northeast Caucasian, about 160,000 speakers in southern Dagestan
16 арулчинмур барз 2018
Lango (Lwo): Lango (Lwo) ✧ LAJ ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Uganda. All numerals under 20 begin with A.
16 Kʉmʉʉnchɨ 2018
Lao: Lao ✧ LAO ✧ Kra–Dai family, 6 tones. Many Indo-European loans via Pali/Sanskrit.
16 deuan gaulagoat 2018
Latgalian: Latgalian ✧ LTG ✧ Baltic, 150,000 speakers. Related to Latvian, Samogitian, and Lithuanian (q.v.).
16 sīna mieness 2018
Laz (Lazuri): Laz (Lazuri) ✧ LZZ ✧ A Kartvelian language spoken by ≈ 30,000 on the southeast shore of the Black Sea
16 xʒala 2018
Leonese: Leonese ✧  ✧ Endangered Romance language undergoing a revival in northwestern Spain
16 xullu 2018
Lepcha: Lepcha ✧ LEP ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, non-tonal, unique script. West Bengal, Nepal, Bhutan.
16 jul (naamkum lavo) 2018
Lezgian: Lezgian ✧ LEZ ✧ Northeast Caucasian. Many throaty phonemes. Official in Dagestan.
16 чиле (čile) 2018
Lezgian [Premodern]: Lezgian [Premodern] ✧ LEZ ✧ Conjectured Lezgian terminology of yore
16 баскIум 2018
Ligurian [Genoese]: Ligurian [Genoese] ✧ LIJ ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Northern Italy. Endangered.
16 lûggiu 2018
Ligurian [Monégasque]: Ligurian [Monégasque] ✧ LIJ ✧ Ligurian dialect spoken by 5600 in Monaco including Princess Stephanie. Employs the non-Italian ü, œ, and ç.
16 luyu 2018
Limburgish: Limburgish ✧ LIM ✧ Germanic language, Limburg & Rhineland areas. Quite unusually, it’s tonal.
16 Juli 2018
Lingala: Lingala ✧ LIN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu, tonal. Spoken in both Congos.
16 sánzá ya nsambo 2018
Lisu: Lisu ✧ LIS ✧ Sino-Tibetan, related to Lahu (q.v.). Uses unusual Fraser alphabet from 1915 in which dots, commas, apostrophes, and bars serve to indicate tones.
16 jul (ʃy21 ha21) 2018
Lithuanian: Lithuanian ✧ LIT ✧ Baltic, 3 million speakers. Unusually, its alphabet places Y after Į.
16 liepa 2018
Livonian: Livonian ✧ LIV ✧ Related to Finnish and Estonian (q.v.). Its last native speaker, Grizelda Kristiņa, died June 2, 2013 aged 103.
16 áinakú 2018
Lombard [Eastern]: Lombard [Eastern] ✧ LMO ✧ Romance, spoken in northern Italy around Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Crema, and Trentino. Lombard and its dialects are not mutually intelligible with Italian.
16 lüj 2018
Lombard [Eastern Bergamasque]: Lombard [Eastern Bergamasque] ✧ LMO ✧ A subdivision of Eastern Lombard spoken by 700,000
16 löi 2018
Lombard [Mantuan]: Lombard [Mantuan] ✧ LMO ✧ Lombard dialect spoken in the city and commune of Mantua in Lombardy
16 lui or lœi 2018
Lombard [Western] (Insubric): Lombard [Western] (Insubric) ✧ LMO ✧ The Lombard spoken in southern Switzerland and northern Italy around Milan
16 lüi 2018
Louisiana Creole: Louisiana Creole ✧ LOU ✧ French-derived, African + other elements. Unlike French, verbs don’t conjugate.
16 jwiyé 2018
Lower Tanana: Lower Tanana ✧ TAA ✧ Endangered Athabaskan language with a dozen or so speakers. Minto, Alaska.
16 benen-noch’edeleghee 2018
Lozi: Lozi ✧ LOZ ✧ Niger-Congo family/Bantu, spoken in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa. It arose as a hybrid of two other Bantu languages, Luyana and Kololo.
16 Sikulu 2018
Luba-Katanga: Luba-Katanga ✧ LUB ✧ Niger-Congo family/Bantu, spoken in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
16 Kabàlàshìpù 2018
Lugbara: Lugbara ✧ LGG ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Uganda (west Nile region) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. First written in 1918, uses Roman alphabet except for Q and X.
16 Irri 2018
Luo: Luo ✧ LUO ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Kenya and Tanzania. Barak Obama Sr. was Luo.
16 Dwe mar abiriyo 2018
Luxembourgish [Traditional]: Luxembourgish [Traditional] ✧ LTZ ✧ Indo-European, Germanic, French influences. Its CH is pronounced like English SH. “Moselle Franconian” is an umbrella term for Luxembourgish and its related West Germanic dialects.
16 Heemount 2018

Māori (Te Reo): Māori (Te Reo) ✧ MRI ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, closely related to Tahitian. Personal pronouns come in singular, dual, and plural.
16 Hōngongoi 2018
Maasai: Maasai ✧ MAS ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, spoken in Kenya & Tanzania. Tonal.
16 mórusásìn 2018
Makedonian [Archaic/Folk]: Makedonian [Archaic/Folk] ✧ MKD ✧ Indo-European, South Slavic. Lacks the noun case system characteristic of most other Slavic languages. Not to be confused with Macedonian Greek, a Hellenic dialect spoken during the 1st millennium bce.
16 златец (zlatets) “golden” 2018
Malagasy: Malagasy ✧ MLG ✧ Spoken in Madagascar but non-African (Malayo-Polynesian, from Borneo)
16 Jolay 2018
Malagasy [Antankaraña]: Malagasy [Antankaraña] ✧ XMV ✧ Dialect spoken by ethnic Antankaraña in northern Madagascar
16 sakave 2018
Malagasy [Sakalava]: Malagasy [Sakalava] ✧ SKG ✧ Dialect spoken by ethnic Sakalava in northern Madagascar
16 sakaviabe 2018
Malecite-Passamaquoddy: Malecite-Passamaquoddy ✧ PQM ✧ Algonquian family, spoken in New Brunswick & Maine, endangered
16 accihtewi-kisuhs 2018
Maltese: Maltese ✧ MLT ✧ Unique Arabic/Sicilian hybrid, 370,000 speakers (Malta)
16 Lulju 2018
Manchu: Manchu ✧ MNC ✧ Tungusic language spoken natively by fewer than 20 in northeast China, but also by several thousand as a second language due to recent revival efforts
16 jul (nadan biya) 2018
Mandinka: Mandinka ✧ MNK ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande branch, Manding group. Bitonal.
16 julaay karoo 2018
Mandinka [Traditional]: Mandinka [Traditional] ✧ MNK ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande branch, Manding group. Bitonal.
16 arajabo 2018
Manipuri: Manipuri ✧ MNI ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken in India, Bangladesh, Burma. Unique script.
16 jul (meraa) 2018
Mankanya: Mankanya ✧ KNF ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bak branch, spoken natively by 75,000 in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal.
16 Pli pŧeek pi pti 2018
Mansi: Mansi ✧ MNS ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to Hungarian, 3000 speakers in central Siberia
16 ойттур этпос (oitur etpos) 2018
Manx: Manx ✧ GLV ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Isle of Man. Its last native speaker was Ned Maddrell (1877-1974).
16 Jerrey Souree 2018
Mapudungun: Mapudungun ✧ ARN ✧ Language isolate spoken in Chile and Argentina, writing system under dispute
16 inanthor-cújen 2018
Mari [Meadow]: Mari [Meadow] ✧ MHR ✧ Finno-Ugric language spoken in Russia’s Mari Replublic. Nine noun cases.
16 сӱрем (sürem) 2018
Marshallese: Marshallese ✧ MAH ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, two main dialects, spoken on the Marshall Islands.
16 Juļae 2018
Maxakalí: Maxakalí ✧ MBL ✧ Language with its own family spoken by a few hundred in Minas Gerais, Brazil
16 yot 2018
Mbuko: Mbuko ✧ MQB ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Chadic. 13,000 speakers in northern Camaroon.
16 kiya jémaakan 2018
Meänkieli: Meänkieli ✧ FIT ✧ Endangered Finnish dialect group spoken in Sweden’s Norrbotten province
16 jyyli 2018
Menominee: Menominee ✧ MEZ ✧ Algonquian family, spoken in northern Wisconsin, nearly extinct
16 Äpaehtaw nëpen kësoq 2018
Miami-Illinois: Miami-Illinois ✧ MIA ✧ Algonquian, originally midwestern US. Extinct but under revival.
16 paaphsaahka niipinwiki 2018
Michif: Michif ✧ CRG ✧ A French-Cree hybrid, < 1000 speakers. North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba.
16 jouyet 2018
Micmac: Micmac ✧ MIC ✧ Eastern Algonquian family. At one time it used Egyptianesque hieroglyphics.
16 Peskewiku’s 2018
Min Dong [Fuzhou]: Min Dong [Fuzhou] ✧ CDO ✧ Sino-Tibetan, unintelligible with Mandarin or Cantonese, untra-complex tonality
16 dâ̤ chék nguŏk 2018
Mingrelian: Mingrelian ✧ XMF ✧ An endangered Kartvelian language related to Georgian and Laz (q.v.), with some mutual intelligibility with the latter. Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia spoke Mingrelian.
ივ კვირკვე (k’virk’ve) ციჱ
Mirandese: Mirandese ✧ MWL ✧ Romance language, at least 1000 years removed from Portuguese.
16 julho 2018
Mizo (Lushai): Mizo (Lushai) ✧ LUS ✧ Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar, Bangladesh & India
16 vawkhniahzawn thla 2018
Mohawk: Mohawk ✧ MOH ✧ Iroquoian family, 3500 speakers in Ontario, Quebec, and northern New York State. Curiously, no labial (lip-produced) consonants.
16 ohiarihko:wa 2018
Moksha: Moksha ✧ MDF ✧ Finno-Ugric language, spoken along the central Volga. There are three main dialects, of which the central “ä” is the literary standard.
I/Λ ijuljkov III/Λ10001000
Mongolian: Mongolian ✧ MON ✧ Mongolic, a family whose members include Buryat and Oirat (q.v.). Observes vowel harmony and lacks the standard L sound.
16 долдугаар сар (doldugaar sar) 2018
Montagnais Innu: Montagnais Innu ✧ MOE ✧ Algonquian language related to Cree (q.v.), spoken by 11,000 in Labrador and Quebec
16 shetan-pishimu 2018
Mossi (Mòoré): Mossi (Mòoré) ✧ MOS ✧ A Niger-Congo language spoken by 5 million, mostly in Burkina Faso
16 seoogo 2018
Motu [Premodern]: Motu [Premodern] ✧ MEU ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, spoken by 39,000 in central Papua New Guinea. Vowel-heavy like many Polynesian languages and lacking consonant blends.
16 Vehadi hirihiri 2018
Mundang: Mundang ✧ MUA ✧ A Niger-Congo language spoken by 250,000 in southern Chad
16 mamǝŋgwãalii 2018
Muya: Muya ✧ MVM ✧ Sino-Tibetan family, Northern Qiangic; two chief dialects not mutually intelligible. There are 10,000 speakers, of which 2000 speak only Muya. China’s Sichuan Province, Kangbo and Jiulong, Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Simian county, Ya’an district.
16 dε335535mbε53 2018

Nāhuatl: Nāhuatl ✧ NAH ✧ Uto-Aztecan, from the original language group of the Aztecs, presently 1.7 million speakers. Of its many dialects, Huasteca Nāhuatl is the most heavily spoken.
16 tlachiconti 2018
Nàmá (Khoekhoe): Nàmá (Khoekhoe) ✧ HQM ✧ Khoisan family. Consonants include 20 clicks. Formerly called Hottentot.
16 ǁgaiǀab or ǂkhoesaob 2018
Nakhi (Naxi): Nakhi (Naxi) ✧ NXQ ✧ Sino-Tibetan, spoken in Yunnan, famous for its Dongba “picture” writing.
16 saimei 2018
Nanai (Gold): Nanai (Gold) ✧ GLD ✧ Tungusic. 4000 speakers, decendents of Manchurian Jurchen
16 хуюн биа 2018
Navajo (Diné bizaad): Navajo (Diné bizaad) ✧ NAV ✧ Athabaskan family, southwest US. Tonal, uses ejectives.
16 Yaʼiishjáástsoh 2018
Ndebele: Ndebele ✧ NBL ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Spoken by descendants of King Mzilikazi (1790-1868).
16 Velebehlinza 2018
Ndyuka (Aukan): Ndyuka (Aukan) ✧ DJK ✧ English-based creole spoken by the Maroon people of Suriname
16 seibin mun 2018
Neapolitan: Neapolitan ✧ NAP ✧ Romance language named not after the city but the Kingdom of Naples, spoken in central Italy. The term paparazzo from Frederico Fellini’s film La Doce Vita (1960) came from the Abruzzo dialect of Neapolitan spoken by one of his screenwriters.
16 ligljh 2018
Neapolitan [Tarantine]: Neapolitan [Tarantine] ✧ NAP ✧ A dialect of Neapolitan with Messapic roots, spoken by 300,000 in and around the city of Taranto in the Italian heel area.
16 luglie 2018
Nenets: Nenets ✧ YRK ✧ Finno-Ugric family, Samoyedic (no, not the dog). Extreme northwest Russia.
16 pylyo yriy 2018
Nez Perce: Nez Perce ✧ NEZ ✧ Plateau Penutian family, Idaho, < 200 speakers, revival underway
16 Q’oyx̣c’áal 2018
Nganasan: Nganasan ✧ NIO ✧ Finno-Ugric family, Samoyedic. Extreme north central Russia, ≈ 1000 speakers.
16 deptê 2018
Ngiemboon: Ngiemboon ✧ NNH ✧ Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid. Province de l'Ouest and Bamboutos in Cameroon.
16 saŋ tyɛ̀b tyɛ̀b mbʉ̀ŋ 2018
Nheengatu: Nheengatu ✧ YRL ✧ Tupi-Guaraní family, spoken in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. The name means “good tongue.”
16 îasypokõîa 2018
Nisga’a: Nisga’a ✧ NCG ✧ Tsimshianic family, seriously endangered, British Columbia (Canada)
16 Maa’y 2018
Niuean: Niuean ✧ NIU ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Niue. Unlike Hawaiian it uses no glottal stop.
16 Iulai 2018
Nivkh (Gilyak): Nivkh (Gilyak) ✧ NIV ✧ Language isolate spoken on western Sakhalin Island and adjacent mainland by around 1000. Nivkh is genderless and doesn’t have adjectives. It uses a modified Cyrillic alphabet with 46 letters.
16 machn chrar long 2018
Nkore: Nkore ✧ NYN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Spoken by 2.3 million in southwestern Uganda.
16 kahingo 2018
Nogai: Nogai ✧ NOG ✧ Turkic, spoken in southwestern Russia (Tuva area) by Golden Horde descendents
16 шилле ай 2018
Norman: Norman ✧ NRF ✧ Romance, Langue d’Oïl with a substantial Norse element, spoken by about 100,000 in Normandy. The Channel Island languages Guernésiais, Jèrriais, and Sercquiais (q.v.) descended from medieval Norman.
16 juilet 2018
Nuer: Nuer ✧ NUS ✧ Nilo-Saharan. South Sudan, Ethiopia. Breathy vs. non-breathy vowels.
16 Pay yie̱tni 2018
Nuu-chah-nulth [Barkley]: Nuu-chah-nulth [Barkley] ✧ NUK ✧ Wakashan family, Vancouver Island. Unusually complex phonology, seriously endangered.
16 ʕaasaimł 2018
Nyole [Ugandan]: Nyole [Ugandan] ✧ NUJ ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 340,000 speakers in the Tororo District of Uganda. It shares about 60% of its vocabulary with Kenyan Nyole.
16 Nakanja 2018

O’odham (Papago-Pima): O’odham (Papago-Pima) ✧ OOD ✧ From the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken by some 10,000 in south-central Arizona and northern Sonora. No L sound; word order is extremely fluid.
16 Jukiabig maşad “Big Rains Month” 2018
Occitan [Aranese]: Occitan [Aranese] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d'òc. Spoken in northeastern Spain’s Aran Valley.
16 junhsèga 2018
Occitan [Gascon]: Occitan [Gascon] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d'òc. Spoken in Gascony in southern France.
16 julhet 2018
Occitan [Provençal]: Occitan [Provençal] ✧ OCI ✧ Indo-European, Romance, closely related to Catalan (q.v.). A Langue d'òc spoken in Southern France.
16 juliet 2018
Occitan [Vivaro-Alpine]: Occitan [Vivaro-Alpine] ✧ OCI ✧ Seriously endangered Occitan dialect spoken in SE France and NW Italy.
16 julhet 2018
Oirat [Kalmyk]: Oirat [Kalmyk] ✧ XAL ✧ Mongolic, grammatically genderless, earliest written samples dating from the 11th century. The Ewok speech in Return of the Jedi was inspired by the distinctive sound of Oirat.
16 taka 2018
Ojibwe [Western]: Ojibwe [Western] ✧ OJW ✧ Algonquian family, 57,000 speakers (all dialects inclusive) in north-central US and Canada
16 aabita niibino giizis 2018
Old Church Romanian: Old Church Romanian ✧ RON ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Pre-20th century.
16 cuptor 2018
Old Church Slavonic: Old Church Slavonic ✧ CHU ✧ Indo-European, Slavic, dating from the 9th century. The original model for the Cyrillic alphabet, it called itself словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ (slověnĭskŭ językŭ).
XVI jul (yuli) MMXVIII
Onondaga: Onondaga ✧ ONO ✧ Iroquoian family, about 50 speakers in Ontario and New York State
16 hiarigôna 2018
Oroch: Oroch ✧ OAC ✧ Tungusic language, eight (as of 2010) native speakers in Khabarovsk Krai in eastern Siberia and thus critically endangered, three dialects. Not to be confused with another Tungusic language, Orok.
16 хакугды беэани 2018
Oromo: Oromo ✧ ORM ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic. Non-Roman scripts once banned.
16 adooleessa 2018
Ös (Chulym): Ös (Chulym) ✧ CLW ✧ Western Turkic language. Moribund, spoken by a few dozen in southwestern Siberia north of the Altay Mountains. During the Soviet era school children were punished when caught speaking Ös.
16 ulu šelgai ai 2018
Ossetian [Digor]: Ossetian [Digor] ✧ OSS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken mainly by Moslems
16 sosæny mæyæ 2018
Ossetian [Ironian]: Ossetian [Ironian] ✧ OSS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken mainly by Christians
16 сусæны мæй (susæni mæy) 2018
Ozolotepec: Ozolotepec ✧ ZAO ✧ Oto-Manguean family, Zapotecan group, spoken by 6500 in Oaxaca, Mexico. Zapotecan languages are tonal.
16 jul 2018

Pökoot: Pökoot ✧ KLN ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Kalenjin. 264,000 speakers in Kenya, Uganda.
16 Sukuku 2018
Palauan: Palauan ✧ PAU ✧ Austronesian family, about 15,000 speakers. Palau, Guam, Mariana Islands.
16 Ongeuid el buil 2018
Palor (Sili): Palor (Sili) ✧ FAP ✧ Niger-Congo family, 9,700 speakers (Thies area of Senegal)
16 suleet 2018
Papago: Papago ✧ OOD ✧ Uto-Aztecan family. Spoken in Arizona & northern Mexico.
16 Jukiabig Mashath 2018
Pashto [Eastern]: Pashto [Eastern] ✧ PUS ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranic, spoken in northeastern Pakistan
16 do hadai miašt 2018
Pashto [Western]: Pashto [Western] ✧ PUS ✧ Pashto dialect spoken in western Afghanistan and Iran
16 do hadia taali miasht 2018
Pawnee [Skiri]: Pawnee [Skiri] ✧ PAW ✧ Caddoan family, north-central Oklahoma, seriously endangered, fewer than a dozen elderly speakers. Along with Arikara (q.v.), we hear Pawnee spoken in the 2015 film The Revenant.
16 rikátihaarikarikat 2018
Pawnee [South Band]: Pawnee [South Band] ✧ PAW ✧ With Skiri above, the other dialect of Pawnee
16 paaraáreehac {uncertain} 2018
Pecheneg: Pecheneg ✧ XPC ✧ A mysterious, poorly attested Turkic language with no known descendents, extinct by 1300
16 çitem 2018
Penan-Nibong: Penan-Nibong ✧ PEZ/PNE ✧ Presumed Austronesian, spoken by 8000 on Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia)
16 laseh tuju 2018
Pennsylvania “Dutch” (Deitsch): Pennsylvania “Dutch” (Deitsch) ✧ PDC ✧ A Palatinate German spoken by the Amish, many of whom not named Yoder
16 Tschulei 2018
Penrhyn (Tongarevan): Penrhyn (Tongarevan) ✧ PNH ✧ Seriously endangered Polynesian language spoken by around 200, Northern Cook Islands
16 tiurai 2018
Picard (Ch’ti or “Patois”): Picard (Ch’ti or “Patois”) ✧ PCD ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Extreme northern France.
16 juyé 2018
Picard [Medieval]: Picard [Medieval] ✧ PCD ✧ As seen on the Astrolabe of Berselius (14th century)
XVI juillet MMXVIII
Piedmontese: Piedmontese ✧ PMS ✧ Indo-European, Romance; 3 million speakers in northern Italy. Curiously, Piedmontese lacks ordinal numbers exceeding “sixth” and instead resorts to phrases (“the one that makes seven,” etc.) to express ordinals beyond that.
16 luj 2018
Pingelapese: Pingelapese ✧ PIF ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by < 1000. Micronesia, Pingelap atoll. Offers specific words for every sequential day in a month — shown here in quotes.
16 (“mas”) sokosok 2018
Pipil (Nawat): Pipil (Nawat) ✧ PPL ✧ Uto-Aztecan language under revival, El Salvador. There are now over 3000 speakers.
16 metzi chikume 2018
Piro [Yine]: Piro [Yine] ✧ PIB ✧ Arawakan family, spoken by the 4000 ethnic Yine who live in the Peruvian Urubamba River Valley and taught in their schools alongside Spanish.
16 golyo ksuru 2018
Pitcairn-Norfolk: Pitcairn-Norfolk ✧ PIH ✧ An endangered Tahitian/English creole spoken on Pitcairn & Norfolk Islands
16 juulai 2018
Plautdietsch (Low German): Plautdietsch (Low German) ✧ PDT ✧ North Sea Germanic, akin to Dutch. Spoken in northern Germany, eastern areas of the Netherlands, and by Mennonites worldwide.
16 Jüli or Juli 2018
Pohnpeian: Pohnpeian ✧ PON ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, Micronesian, spoken by about 34,000 on Pohnpei Island in the Caroline Islands. Pohnpeian offers 30 sets of 1-to-9 numerals used when referring to different classes of objects such as stalks, small round things, bundles, gusts of wind, and songs.
16 sulai 2018
Poitevin-Saintongeais: Poitevin-Saintongeais ✧  ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl. Earliest known writings from 1400s.
16 jhullét 2018
Polabian: Polabian ✧ POX ✧ West Slavic with Germanic influences. Last native speaker died in 1756. The protagonists in the Russian opera-ballet Mlada describe themselves as Polabians.
16 zeminik 2018
Pomeranian [Kashubian]: Pomeranian [Kashubian] ✧ CSB ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic. Some 100,000 speakers living mostly in Germany & Poland.
16 lëpińc 2018
Pomeranian [Slovincian]: Pomeranian [Slovincian] ✧ CSB ✧ The other major dialect of Pomeranian, though unfortunately extinct since World War I
16 jʉl 2018
Pontic: Pontic ✧ PNT ✧ Indo-European, Hellenic. Spoken in Greece & Turkey.
16 Χορτοθερ’τς (Chortotherts) 2018
Potawatomi: Potawatomi ✧ POT ✧ Algonquian language of the Great Lakes Area (Michigan, Wisconsin, southern Ontario). One of its last native speakers, Cecilia Miksekwe Jackson (d. 2011), worked to document and teach Potawatomi. Revival efforts are currently underway.
16 abte-nibne-gizes or bkon-gizes 2018
Proto-Germanic: Proto-Germanic ✧  ✧ Reconstructed ancestor of all Germanic languages, last spoken c. 250 bce
XVI Hawjamenoþ MMXVIII
Proto-Slavic: Proto-Slavic ✧  ✧ Reconstructed ancestor of all Slavic languages, 5th to 8th centuries ce
XVI lipn MMXVIII
Pukapukan: Pukapukan ✧ PKP ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language from Danger Island (Cook Islands group). Over 4000 speakers.
16 Tiulai 2018
Pumi [Qingua or Southern]: Pumi [Qingua or Southern] ✧ PMJ ✧ The other chief dialect of Pumi. The two are not mutually intelligible.
16 qa55ɣuɑ̃55ʒi13 2018
Pumi [Taoba or Northern]: Pumi [Taoba or Northern] ✧ PMI ✧ Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman. Spoken by highland ethnic Pumi in Yunnan.
16 n̥ǝ35li55mei35 2018
Purépecha (Tarascan): Purépecha (Tarascan) ✧ TSZ ✧ A language isolate of the descendents of the Purépecha civilization, which rivaled that of the Aztecs up until the European conquest. Still spoken natively by 125,000 in the southwestern Mexican state of Michoacán.
16 julio 2018

Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi): Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi) ✧ KEK ✧ Mayan family, 800,000 speakers in Guatemala and Belize
16 juul 2018
Qiang [Horpa/Ergong]: Qiang [Horpa/Ergong] ✧ ERO ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but non-tonal, 50,000 Sichuan-area speakers. Linguists consider it a “living fossil.”
16 ɦɛ vdem pa 2018
Qiang [Máwō]: Qiang [Máwō] ✧ CNG ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but non-tonal, 130,000 speakers in China’s Sichuan
16 stəʂ 2018
Qiang [Taoping]: Qiang [Taoping] ✧ QXS ✧ Sino-Tibetan family but tonal (unlike Ergong and Máwō above), 80,000 speakers
16 ɕiŋ31ʂı33 2018
Quechua [As widely published]: Quechua [As widely published] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechuan family, spoken by Inca Empire descendents. Natively it lacks the vowels E and O.
16 ñiqin anta situwa killa 2018
Quechua [Huallaga]: Quechua [Huallaga] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechua II dialect spoken in the Huánuco Province in Peru
16 julyu 2018
Quechua [Northern/Ecuadorian]: Quechua [Northern/Ecuadorian] ✧ QUE ✧ Quechua II dialect, called Kitchwa, spoken in Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru
16 purun 2018
Quechua [Southern/Cusco]: Quechua [Southern/Cusco] ✧ QUZ ✧ Quechua II dialect spoken in the Peru’s Cusco region
16 antasitwa 2018

Rapa Nui (Pascuanese): Rapa Nui (Pascuanese) ✧ RAP ✧ Eastern Polynesian, Easter Island, 2700 native speakers. Major differences from other EP languages. Its native writing system, called Rongorongo, remains undeciphered.
16 mauiui 2018
Rennell-Bellona (Rennellese): Rennell-Bellona (Rennellese) ✧ MNV ✧ Relatively obscure Polynesian language, 2000 speakers, Solomon Islands
16 Lulae 2018
Rgyalrong [Northwestern]: Rgyalrong [Northwestern] ✧ JYA ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Verbs marked with directional orientation cues. Sichuan.
16 sla wa bdǝn mbɐ 2018
Rohingya: Rohingya ✧ RHG ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian. Heavily persecuted, the Rohingya are toughing it out in Burma and in refugee camps in Bangladesh.
16 acín 2018
Romani [Balkan Sofia Erli]: Romani [Balkan Sofia Erli] ✧ RMN ✧ Indo-Aryan language spoken by Romani in Bulgaria. There are around 760,000 Balkan Romani speakers as a whole, of which Sofia Erli is a subdivision.
16 juli 2018
Romani [Balkan Ursari]: Romani [Balkan Ursari] ✧ RMN ✧ A Balkan Romani spoken in Moldavia and Romania
16 julija 2018
Romani [Kale Finnish]: Romani [Kale Finnish] ✧ RMF ✧ Indo-Aryan language, by way of Scotland, spoken by the Finnish Romani
16 khassesko čoon 2018
Romani [Kale Iberian](Caló): Romani [Kale Iberian](Caló) ✧ RMQ ✧ Indo-Aryan language spoken by Iberian Peninsula Romani. The characters singing the famous “Anvil Chorus” in Verdi’s opera Il trovatori would have likely represented Caló.
16 ñuntivé 2018
Romani [Kale Welsh]: Romani [Kale Welsh] ✧ RMW ✧ Romani variety spoken in Wales until at least 1950, introduced by a group that arrived during the 15th century. The purported last native speaker was Manfri Frederick Wood (d. 1968).
16 khasesko munþos 2018
Romansh [Grischun]: Romansh [Grischun] ✧ ROH ✧ Indo-European, Rhaeto-Romance. Called Rumantsch Grischun to distinguish it from Puter below.
16 fanadur 2018
Romansh [Puter]: Romansh [Puter] ✧ ROH ✧ Romansch dialect spoken in the Engadine Valley, Switzerland.
16 lügl 2018
Rotokas: Rotokas ✧ ROO ✧ Spoken by ≈ 4000 in Papua New Guinea. Famous for its tiny sound inventory, its entire alphabet consists of A, E, G, I, K, O, P, R, S, T, U, and V.
16 erao vatarapa kekira 2018
Russian [Premodern]: Russian [Premodern] ✧ RUS ✧ This was Russian before it adopted neo-Latin month conventions.
16 макушка лета 2018
Rusyn (Ruthene or Ruthenian): Rusyn (Ruthene or Ruthenian) ✧ RUE ✧ East Slavic, about 60,000 current speakers. Andy Warhol and Sandra Dee were of Rusyn extraction.
16 липень (lipen) “linden tree blossom” 2018
Rwanda-Rundi: Rwanda-Rundi ✧ KIN/RUN ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Tonal, official in Rwanda.
16 Nyakanga 2018

Sabaean (Sabaic or Himyarite): Sabaean (Sabaic or Himyarite) ✧ XSA ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Old South Arabian branch, the language of the Queen of Sheba/Saba spoken in Yemen between approximately 1000 bce and the 6th century ce. Some of its successors (Mehri, Soqotri, etc.) still flourish.
XVI 𐩻𐩥𐩽𐩲𐩡𐩣𐩻𐩧𐩱𐩬 (ðū ‘lmðrān) MMXVIII
Salish, Coastal [Island Halkomelem] (Hulʼq̱ʼumiʼnumʼ): Salish, Coastal [Island Halkomelem] (Hulʼq̱ʼumiʼnumʼ) ✧ HUR ✧ A Salishan language spoken by about 200 on the east coast of Vancouver Island
16 Tum’qw’i’lus 2018
Salish, Coastal [Klallam]: Salish, Coastal [Klallam] ✧ CLM ✧ Salishan family, spoken in USA’s Pacific Northwest on the northern shore of the Olympic Peninsula.
16 čən̕θəqəy̕ 2018
Salish, Coastal [North Straits]: Salish, Coastal [North Straits] ✧ STR ✧ Salishan family, Vancouver area. Six dialects, nearly extinct.
16 čən̕q̕ə́čqs 2018
Salish, Coastal [Puget Sound] (Lushootseed): Salish, Coastal [Puget Sound] (Lushootseed) ✧ LUT ✧ Another Salishan language, spoken by fewer than 100. The word geoduck (elephant clam) derives from Puget Sound Salish.
16 pədgʷədbixʷ 2018
Salish, Interior [Colville-Okanagan] (Syilx): Salish, Interior [Colville-Okanagan] (Syilx) ✧ OKA ✧ Southern British Columbia and northern Washington State. Syilx is spoken natively by about 600 of whom only a quarter are “deeply fluent” and mostly over 50, it’s considered moribund.
16 ksíyaʔtn 2018
Salish, Interior [Shuswap]: Salish, Interior [Shuswap] ✧ SHS ✧ The northernmost Interior Salishan language, spoken natively by around 200 in central and southern British Columbia. Conveniently, Shuswap’s stress is predictable: the vowels U and I are always stressed, the schwa never is.
16 Pelltqwelq̓wélt “Getting Ripe Month” 2018
Samburu: Samburu ✧ SAQ ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, northern Kenya highlands, 174,000 speakers
16 Lapa le sapa 2018
Sami [Inari]: Sami [Inari] ✧ SMN ✧ Finno-Ugric, 300 speakers, seriously endangered
16 syeinimáánu 2018
Sami [Kildin]: Sami [Kildin] ✧ SJD ✧ A Sami spoken by about 600 in the Lovozero area of the Kola Peninsula
16 суйнманну 2018
Sami [Lule]: Sami [Lule] ✧ SMJ ✧ Spoken by between 1000 and 2000 around the Lule River in Sweden and in Norway’s Nordland County.
16 sjnjilltjamánno 2018
Sami [Northern]: Sami [Northern] ✧ SME ✧ The most widely spoken Sami, ≈ 20,000 speakers
16 suoidneánu 2018
Sami [Skolt]: Sami [Skolt] ✧ SMS ✧ Seriously endangered, 400 speakers mostly around Sevettijärvi, Finland
16 suei’nnmannu 2018
Sami [Southern]: Sami [Southern] ✧ SMA ✧ Seriously endangered, 500 speakers in Norway’s Snåsa and Hattfjelldal districts
16 snjaltjen 2018
Samlandish (Old Baltic Prussian): Samlandish (Old Baltic Prussian) ✧ PRG ✧ Indo-European, Balto-Slavic (as opposed to Germanic, the other, entirely unrelated “Prussian”). Extinct by 1800, in large part because many of its speakers died during a rash of plague epidemics and famines during the period 1709-1711.
16 Līpa 2018
Samogitian: Samogitian ✧ SGS ✧ Indo-European, Baltic, spoken in western Lithuania. A Lithuanian dialect to some, a separate language to others. Related to Curonian and Latgalian (q.v.).
16 lėipa “basswoods” 2018
Sango: Sango ✧ SAG ✧ Ubangian-derived creole, 3 tones, central Africa
16 lêngua 2018
Sanskrit: Sanskrit ✧ SAN ✧ Along with Hittite, one of the oldest attested Indo-European languages
१६ jul (saptamamāsa) २०१८
Santali: Santali ✧ SAT ✧ Austroasiatic language spoken in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Words for hand and arm are identical.
१६ जुलाई २०१८
Saramaccan: Saramaccan ✧ SRM ✧ Portuguese/English/Dutch creole + African traits. Suriname.
16 baímátú líba 2018
Sardinian: Sardinian ✧ SRD ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Its earliest known writings date from c. 1080. Sardinian and Italian are not mutually intelligible.
16 alzòlas or trìbulas 2018
Sardinian [Olianese]: Sardinian [Olianese] ✧ SRD ✧ Sardinian dialect spoken in Oliena in the province of Nuoro (east-central region)
16 trìvulas 2018
Sassarese: Sassarese ✧ SDC ✧ A transitional dialect between Sardinian and Corsican, officially recognized in Sardinia and spoken by 100,000 on the northwest coast. Unlike Italian, the trigraph sch is pronounced like the German ch or the Greek χ.
16 trìura 2018
Saxwe: Saxwe ✧ SXW ✧ Niger-Congo family, Gbe group, spoken by 170,000 in Benin
16 Tyantwɛnsun 2018
Sedang: Sedang ✧ SED ✧ Austroasiatic language native to Laos & Vietnam, 100,000 speakers. Famously huge vowel inventory.
16 khế tơpah 2018
Seediq [Truku]: Seediq [Truku] ✧ TRV ✧ Formosan, Atayalic. Indigenous language from northern Taiwan.
16 empitu idas 2018
Sekani [McLeod]: Sekani [McLeod] ✧ SEK ✧ Athabaskan language spoken by a few dozen in British Columbia. Bitonal.
16 Jije inza 2018
Selkup: Selkup ✧ SEL ✧ Uralic, Samoyedic. Yamalo-Nenets region in Siberia, 1500 speakers.
16 нỳран мỹ´ иррет 2018
Serbian [Orthodox]: Serbian [Orthodox] ✧ SRP ✧ Serbian Orthodox Church tradition
16 илински (ilinsky) 2018
Serbian [Premodern/Folk]: Serbian [Premodern/Folk] ✧ SRP ✧ Serbian folk tradition, pre-19th century
16 жетвар (žetvar) 2018
Sercquiais (Sarkese): Sercquiais (Sarkese) ✧ NRF ✧ Indo-European, Romance. A Norman dialect spoken by about 20 on the Channel Island of Sark.
16 djwilet 2018
Seri: Seri ✧ SEI ✧ Indigenous language isolate spoken by < 1000 in Mexico. Uses nine definite articles that depend on the relative movement of the object.
16 icóozlajc iizax 2018
Seychellois Creole: Seychellois Creole ✧ CRS ✧ French-based creole of the Seychelles, around 70,000 speakers
16 zilyet 2018
Shan: Shan ✧ SHN ✧ Kra–Dai language, tonal. Spoken in Burma, Thailand, and China. It has a trill [IPA r] but uses it only rarely, mostly for loans. Many speakers can’t make it and substitute an L sound.
16 jul (lunsip) 2018
Shawiya Berber: Shawiya Berber ✧ SHY ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, spoken in and around the Awras Mountains of eastern Algeria. Preliterate until recently.
16 yulyu 2018
Shawnee: Shawnee ✧ SJW ✧ An Algonquian language with fewer than 200 speakers in Oklahoma. Two genders, animate and inanimate.
16 Miini kiishthwa “Blackberry Moon” 2018
Sherpa: Sherpa ✧ XSR ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Spoken by 150,000 in Nepal, Tibet, and Kashmir. Tonal.
16 dāwā dinbā 2018
Shixing: Shixing ✧ SXG ✧ A scantily documented Sino-Tibetan language of the Sichuan and the Tibet Autonomous Regions. Spoken by fewer than 2000, two thirds of whom are quite inconveniently monolingual in Shixing.
16 ʂε̃55ɬɯ55 2018
Shona: Shona ✧ SNA ✧ Bantu language spoken by over 8 million, official in Zimbabwe
16 Chikunguru 2018
Shor: Shor ✧ CJS ✧ Turkic, 10,000 speakers in Siberia’s Kemerovo Province. Mongolian and Russian loans.
16 chailyk au or pishap shapkana 2018
Shoshoni [Panamint]: Shoshoni [Panamint] ✧ SHH ✧ Uto-Aztecan family, natively spoken by 1000 in Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. There is no universally agreed-upon writing system; some advocate keeping the language preliterate. Uses whispered vowels. Sacagawea, who translated for Lewis and Clark, was Shoshoni.
16 taattsüwim müattsi 2018
Sicilian: Sicilian ✧ SCN ✧ Indo-European, Romance. Arabic and Greek influences with pre-Indo-European roots. One departure from Italian is that Sicilian uses the vowels E and O far less frequently.
16 giugnèttu 2018
Silesian: Silesian ✧ SZL ✧ West Slavic, spoken in Poland and the Czech Republic. Some authorities consider it a dialect of Polish, others don't. In any case about a dozen dialects of Silesian are cited, one of which is unique to Panna Maria, Texas.
16 lipěc 2018
Slovene [Premodern, Prekmurian]: Slovene [Premodern, Prekmurian] ✧ SLV ✧ A Slovene dialect spoken in northeastern Slovenia and western Hungary
16 jakopšček 2018
Slovene [Premodern, Standard]: Slovene [Premodern, Standard] ✧ SLV ✧ Indo-European, South Slavic, standardized from various dialects during the 18th century. Unusually for a Slavic language it offers three numbers — singular, dual, and plural. Not to be confused with Slovak, which is WEST Slavic and close to Czech (q.v.).
16 mali srpan “small sickle” 2018
Somali: Somali ✧ SOM ✧ Afro-Asiatic family, Cushitic. Employs vowel harmony and three tones.
16 bisha todobaad 2018
Sorbian (Lusatian) [Lower]: Sorbian (Lusatian) [Lower] ✧ WEN ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 10,000 in lower Saxony (Brandenburg)
16 žnjojski 2018
Sorbian (Lusatian) [Upper]: Sorbian (Lusatian) [Upper] ✧ WEN ✧ Indo-European, West Slavic, spoken by 40,000 in upper Saxony
16 pražnik 2018
Sotho: Sotho ✧ SOT ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Uses clicks, ejectives, and uvular trill.
16 Phupu 2018
Sotho [Northern] (Pedi): Sotho [Northern] (Pedi) ✧ SOT ✧ Another dialect of Sotho, South Africa.
16 Phuphu or Mosegamanye 2018
Southern Min (Minnan): Southern Min (Minnan) ✧ NAN ✧ Sino-Tibetan, spoken in China’s Fujian province
16 chhit-goe̍h 2018
Standard Moroccan Berber (Tamazight): Standard Moroccan Berber (Tamazight) ✧ ZGH ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber
16 ⵢⵓⵍⵢⵓⵣ 2018
Sudovian (Yotvingian): Sudovian (Yotvingian) ✧ XSV ✧ Indo-European, Baltic, unfortunately extinct by 1600. It was mutually intelligible with Old Baltic Prussian (q.v.).
16 leipa or julijis 2018
Svan: Svan ✧ SVA ✧ Kartvelian family (Like Georgian, Mingrelian, and Laz), spoken in the Svaneti region of Georgia by around 30,000, who call it lushnu nin. It has no written standard.
ივ გუ̂ირკ (gûirkI) ციჱ
Swazi: Swazi ✧ SSW ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Swaziland (official), Lesotho, Mozambique, and South Africa.
16 Kholwane 2018
Swedish [Traditional/Folk]: Swedish [Traditional/Folk] ✧ SWE ✧ North Germanic, descended from Old Norse. This is the premodern terminology.
16 hömånad 2018
Syriac Aramaic: Syriac Aramaic ✧ SYC ✧ Northwest Semitic, spoken by Syrian Christians in Turkey, Iraq, and Syria. Its script shares its ancestry with the Arabic and maps to it almost one-to-one; the style shown here is called Serṭā.
16 jul (tāmuz) 2018

Tabasaran: Tabasaran ✧ TAB ✧ Northeast Caucasian language notable for its vast noun case inventory. Natively it lacks the vowel O.
16 даркъан 2018
Tacana: Tacana ✧ TNA ✧ Western Tacanan family, 1800 speakers along the Beni & Madre de Dios rivers in Bolivia
16 badhi sukuta piadh 2018
Tachelhit (Shilha or Sussian): Tachelhit (Shilha or Sussian) ✧ SHI ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, southern Morocco. Writings date from 16th century ce.
16 jul (yulyuz) 2018
Taki Taki (Sranan Tongo): Taki Taki (Sranan Tongo) ✧ SRN ✧ An English/Dutch/Portuguese/West African Creole spoken in Suriname. The second verse of Suriname’s national anthem is sung in Taki Taki.
16 juli 2018
Talinga (Lubwisi): Talinga (Lubwisi) ✧ TLJ ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 99,000 speakers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (where they call it Talinga) and Uganda (where they call it Lubwisi)
16 Kwamusanju 2018
Tamahaq: Tamahaq ✧ THV ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern Tuareg language spoken in Algeria, western Libya, and northern Niger. Three dialects, 77,000 speakers.
16 yulin 2018
Tamil: Tamil ✧ TAM ✧ Dravidian family, India. Split off from Malayalam 9th century ce. Pronouns offer several levels of politeness.
௰௬ ஜூலை (jūlai) ௲௲௰௮
Tanacross: Tanacross ✧ TCB ✧ Athabaskan language with about 30 speakers (middle Tanana River, Alaska)
16 saa dze’edeex dé’ 2018
Tatar [Kazan]: Tatar [Kazan] ✧ TAT ✧ Turkic, spoken in Tatarstan. Has used Arabic, Roman, & Cyrillic alphabets.
16 yül 2018
Telugu: Telugu ✧ TEL ✧ Dravidian family, Andhra Pradesh, India. Oldest text, 575 ce.
౧౬ జూలై ౨౦౧౮
Temne: Temne ✧ TEM ✧ Bantu language spoken in Sierra Leone, tonal
16 Aṅ’óf abána 2018
Teso (Ateso): Teso (Ateso) ✧ TEO ✧ Nilo-Saharan language spoken in Kenya, Uganda
16 Ojola 2018
Tetum (Tetun): Tetum (Tetun) ✧ TET ✧ Malayo-Polynesian language with Portuguese influences, East Timor.
16 jullu 2018
Thai: Thai ✧ THA ✧ Now assigned to the Kra–Dai family, previously considered Sino-Tibetan. Five speech registers: Street, Formal, Rhetorical, Religious, Royal. Through Buddhism, Thai inherited lots of Sanskrit and Pali, making it partially Indo-European.
๑๖ กรกฎาคม (karakadaakhom) ๒๐๑๘
Tibetan [Dégé]: Tibetan [Dégé] ✧ BOD ✧ The Tibetan dialect spoken in China’s Sichuan Province
༡༦ da13wa53dɛn55pa53 ༢༠༡༨
Tibetan [Standard or Lhasa]: Tibetan [Standard or Lhasa] ✧ BOD ✧ Sino-Tibetan. Three speech registers: Phal-skad (informal), Zhe-sa (polite/respectful), Chos-skad (religious, as it appears in scriptures). There are nominally two tones, though their pitch contours can vary within words of one syllable.
༡༦ ta13wa13tỹ13pa53 ༢༠༡༨
Tibetan [Written]: Tibetan [Written] ✧ BOD ✧ Written Tibetan quite famously diverges from its spoken form. Writing conventions had fossilized while the speech evolved over many centuries, such that the oral version of a word can be entirely different from the written.
༡༦ zla ba dbun pa ༢༠༡༨
Tigrinya: Tigrinya ✧ TIR ✧ Afro-Asiatic, South Semitic. Ethiopia & Eritrea.
16 jul (hamle) 2018
Tlingit: Tlingit ✧ TLI ✧ Na-Dené family, USA Pacific northwest, nearly extinct
16 Xaat Dísi 2018
Tofalar (Karagas): Tofalar (Karagas) ✧ KIM ✧ A moribund Turkic language closely related to Tuvan (q.v.) with about 90 speakers in the Irkutsk region. Uses a modified Cyrillic alphabet of 42 characters.
16 баъӄ тозаар ай 2018
Tokelauan [Traditional]: Tokelauan [Traditional] ✧ TKL ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, about 4300 speakers in American Samoa (on Tokelau and Swains Island) and New Zealand. Tokelauan and Tuvaluan are mutually intelligible.
16 Toe Utua 2018
Tongan: Tongan ✧ TON ✧ Malayo-Polynesian. Only one vowel per syllable, no blended consonants.
16 Siulai 2018
Tsimshian [Coast]: Tsimshian [Coast] ✧ TSI ✧ Indigenous language spoken by around 240 in British Columbia and Alaska. Possibly an isolate.
16 Ha’lila᾿x simisoo “Time to harvest sockeye salmon” 2018
Tsonga: Tsonga ✧ TSO ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu. Uses whistling sounds and a single click.
16 Mawuwani 2018
Tswana: Tswana ✧ TSN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu, 4 million speakers in southern Africa
16 Phukwi 2018
Tuareg [Tamasheq]: Tuareg [Tamasheq] ✧ TAQ ✧ Afro-Asiatic, Berber. Complex “avoidance” behavior in communication.
16 jul (yulyez) 2018
Tumbuka: Tumbuka ✧ TUM ✧ Niger-Congo, Bantu. Speakers in Malawi, Zambia, & Tanzania.
16 Julayi 2018
Turkish [Meskhetian]: Turkish [Meskhetian] ✧ TUR ✧ Dialect spoken by Meskheti disapora throughout Russia
16 orago 2018
Turkish [Ottoman]: Turkish [Ottoman] ✧ TUR ✧ Turkish of the Ottoman Empire before 20th century reforms
16 тәммүз 2018
Turkish [Standard]: Turkish [Standard] ✧ TUR ✧ Altaic family, earliest Old Turkic inscriptions found in Mongolia
16 temmuz or orak 2018
Turkmen 1 [Pre-Niyazov]: Turkmen 1 [Pre-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ Altaic family, Turkic. 9 million speakers.
16 iýul 2018
Turkmen 2 [Post-Niyazov]: Turkmen 2 [Post-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ As decreed by dictator Saparmurat Niyazov (1940-2006)
16 Gorkut 2018
Turkmen 3 [Post-Post-Niyazov]: Turkmen 3 [Post-Post-Niyazov] ✧ TUK ✧ Back by popular demand!
16 iýul 2018
Tuvan: Tuvan ✧ TYV ✧ Turkic language with Mongolian loans, spoken in Tuva
16 чеди ай (čedi ay) 2018
Tyap (Katab): Tyap (Katab) ✧ KCG ✧ Niger-Congo, West Plateau. 200,000 speakers, Nigeria.
16 Zwat Anatat 2018
Tzotzil: Tzotzil ✧ TZO ✧ Mayan family, Cholan-Tzeltalan branch, spoken by 400,000 in Chiapas, Mexico
16 hulyo 2018

Uab Meto: Uab Meto ✧ AOZ ✧ Malayo-Polynesian family, unusual gender distinctions, Indonesian West Timor
16 fun-hitu’ 2018
Ubykh: Ubykh ✧ UBY ✧ Extinct Northwest Caucasian language notable for its staggering consonant inventory and richness in idioms. Its last native speaker was Circassian exile Tevfik Esenç (1904-1992).
16 kʷʼərkʷʼəmza {?} 2018
Udmurt (Votyak): Udmurt (Votyak) ✧ UDM ✧ Uralic family, related to Komi (q.v.). 500,000 speakers in the central Urals.
16 пӧсьтолэзь 2018
Ukrainian: Ukrainian ✧ UKR ✧ Indo-European, East Slavic, Polish affinities
16 липнь (lypen) “linden” 2018
Ulwa: Ulwa ✧ ULW ✧ Misumalpan family, Sumo group. About 400 speakers in eastern Nicaragua.
16 was waikak 2018
Unami [Lenape]: Unami [Lenape] ✧ UNM ✧ Nominally extinct Algonquian language of the New Jersey area Lenape people
16 lainipën 2018
Upland Yuman: Upland Yuman ✧ YUF ✧ Aboriginal language spoken by < 450 in Arizona’s Grand Canyon
16 Gfoy duuyg 2018
Upper Kuskokwim: Upper Kuskokwim ✧ KUU ✧ Athabaskan, only 40 speakers (Alaska). Features a voiceless N sound.
16 strughot’ayeno’o’ 2018
Upper Tanana [Tetlin]: Upper Tanana [Tetlin] ✧ TAU ✧ Athabaskan, related to Tanacross (q.v.), fewer than 100 speakers. Tetlin, Alaska.
16 [July unknown] 2018
Uyghur: Uyghur ✧ UIG ✧ Turkic, loans from Persian, Russian, Chinese. Spoken in China’s Xinjiang region.
16 yettinchi ay 2018

Võro: Võro ✧ VRO ✧ Finno-Ugric, related to Veps (q.v.), seriously endangered
16 hainakuu 2018
Võro [Seto]: Võro [Seto] ✧ VRO ✧ Võro/Estonian dialect spoken by 12,500 in Setomaa (Estonia/Russia). Germanic influences.
16 juuli or hainakuu 2018
Vai: Vai ✧ VAI ✧ Niger-Congo family, Mande. Tonal, 75,000 speakers, Liberia.
16 jul (sôᶇ fè’á) 2018
Venda: Venda ✧ VEN ✧ Niger-Congo family, Bantu branch. 800,000 speakers in southern Africa
16 Fulwana 2018
Venetian: Venetian ✧ VEC ✧ Veneto region. Has un-Italian sounds ç (like Greek θ) and, as also in Polish, ł (like English w).
16 lujo 2018
Veps: Veps ✧ VEP ✧ Finno-Ugric, ≈ 6300 speakers mostly near the Gulf of Finland
16 heinku 2018
Vietnamese (Annamese): Vietnamese (Annamese) ✧ VIE ✧ Austro-Asiatic family, at one time written with Chinese-derived script called Chữ nôm
16 tháng bảy 2018
Vosgien [La Bresse]: Vosgien [La Bresse] ✧  ✧ Romance, Langue d’Oïl, Lorraine subgroup. Vosgien dialects were spoken in France in Vosges, St. Quirin, eastern Badonviller, and two Alsace Departments. Extinct, though much of its unique vocabulary lives on.
16 djullet 2018
Vosgien [La Haye]: Vosgien [La Haye] ✧  ✧ Another Vosgien dialect
16 julè 2018
Vosgien [Ville sur Illon]: Vosgien [Ville sur Illon] ✧  ✧ And yet another
16 juyè 2018
Votic (Votian or Vote): Votic (Votian or Vote) ✧ VOT ✧ Finno-Ugric, < 20 speakers in two villiages near Narva, Estonia
16 juuli 2018

Wallisian (East Uvean): Wallisian (East Uvean) ✧ WLS ✧ Polynesian, spoken by around 10,000 on Wallis Island of Wallis and Futuna. Related to Rennellese and Tongan (q.v.).
16 sūlio 2018
Walloon: Walloon ✧ WLN ✧ Indo-European, Romance, Langue d’Oïl whose writings date back to 1500s. Despite its traditional label as a dialect, Walloon and French show little mutual intelligibility.
16 djulete 2018
Walser: Walser ✧ WAE ✧ Germanic, uppermost Swiss alps. Its CH is very roughly articulated.
16 Heiwet 2018
Waray-Waray [premodern]: Waray-Waray [premodern] ✧ WAR ✧ Malayo-Polynesian, Central Visayan. Philippines.
16 jul (sakahon) 2018
Welsh (Cymric): Welsh (Cymric) ✧ CYM ✧ Indo-European, Celtic, Brythonic. Many speakers not named Jones.
16 Gorffenaf 2018
Winnebago (Ho-Chunk): Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) ✧ WIN ✧ Siouan family, native to an area stretching from the southwestern shore of Lake Michigan to east central Minnesota. As in some European languages like Polish and Lithuanian, nasalized vowels are contrastive and marked with ogoneks (a/ą, i/į, u/ų).
16 Waxoc wiira 2018
Wolof: Wolof ✧ WOL ✧ Niger-Congo language. Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania. The terms “okay” and “hep cat” may possibly have come from Wolof.
16 ndéeyi koor 2018
Wymysorys (Wilamowicean): Wymysorys (Wilamowicean) ✧ WYM ✧ Germanic language, approx. 70 speakers in the area of Wilamowice, Poland
16 jū̍li 2018

Xhosa: Xhosa ✧ XHO ✧ Niger-Congo, many unusual consonants including 15 clicks
16 uNtulikazi 2018
Xincan [Jutiapa]: Xincan [Jutiapa] ✧ XIN ✧ From a family of moribund/extinct language isolates, spoken by a handfull in Guatamala though no longer fluently. Lots of Mayan loans.
16 puhwa ʔawa 2018

Yakut (Sakha): Yakut (Sakha) ✧ SAH ✧ Northern Turkic, grammatically genderless, spoken in northern Siberia
16 от ыйа (ot uhyah ) 2018
Yanesha’ (Amuesha): Yanesha’ (Amuesha) ✧ AME ✧ Arawakan family. Spoken by about 7000 Yanesha’ in the Peruvian Amazon.
16 moncnem̃ 2018
Yangben (Central Yambasa): Yangben (Central Yambasa) ✧ YAV ✧ Niger-Congo family, Southern Bantoid, spoken by 17,000 in Cameroon
16 efute 2018
Yi (Nuosu): Yi (Nuosu) ✧ III ✧ Tibeto-Burman language spoken by ethnic Yi in China and southeast Asia
16 jul (shypma) 2018
Yiddish (Judaeo-German): Yiddish (Judaeo-German) ✧ YID ✧ Arose from Old High German (q.v.) during the ninth century. It uses Hebrew script adapted to indicate vowels explicitly. There are currently about 3 million speakers worldwide.
16 יולי‬‮ (yuli) 2018
Yoruba: Yoruba ✧ YOR ✧ Niger-Congo family, spoken in Nigeria and Benin. Heavy Arabic influences.
16 Oṣù Agẹmọ or Keje 2018
Yuchi: Yuchi ✧ YUC ✧ Native American language of unknown ancestry, virtually extinct, Oklahoma
16 Wagakya 2018
Yukaghir [Tundra]: Yukaghir [Tundra] ✧ YKG ✧ A moribund two-language family, spoken by a few dozen in the Russian Far East
16 leveime 2018
Yupi’k [Mid-Alaskan]: Yupi’k [Mid-Alaskan] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, ≈ 13,000 speakers
16 Ingun 2018
Yupik [Pacific Gulf]: Yupik [Pacific Gulf] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, 2 dialects, ≈ 500-1000 speakers
16 Naut’staat Iraluat 2018
Yupik [St Lawrence]: Yupik [St Lawrence] ✧ YPK ✧ Eskimo-Aleut family, Bering Strait area, < 300 speakers
16 Ellngaghvik 2018

Zarma (Dyerma): Zarma (Dyerma) ✧ DJE ✧ Nilo-Saharan family, Songhay group. Spoken in southwest Niger.
16 way zeno 2018
Zaza (Zazaki or Zazaish): Zaza (Zazaki or Zazaish) ✧ ZZA ✧ Indo-European, Indo-Iranian. 2,000,000 speakers, mostly in Turkey.
16 temmuze 2018
Zhuang: Zhuang ✧ ZHA ✧ Kra–Dai family, 6 tones, spoken in China’s Guangxi region
16 nin caet 2018
Zulu: Zulu ✧ ZUL ✧ Bantu language widely spoken in southern Africa. Uses clicks.
16 uNtulikazi 2018
Zuni: Zuni ✧ ZUN ✧ An isolate spoken by 9500 in New Mexico. Strangely, there may be a 13th-century Japanese connection.
16 dayamcho yachunne 2018

Illustration: The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, mid-15th century French Gothic illuminations produced in the Low Countries. Months captioned in two common vernaculars of that time and place, Medieval Picard and Old Dutch.

Notes

1. They didn't, though, not to mention the fact Pope Gregory wouldn’t enter the picture for several more centuries. Etruscans marked dates pretty much like the Romans did; i.e., so many days leading up to the nones or ides, or preceding the start of the next month. The very word “ides,” as a matter of fact, likely derives from an Etruscan term for “divide.”

2. In a handful of cases, especially with New World indigenous languages, the month-by-month correspondence between their systems and the modern Gregorian one was less than clear but informally accepted according to listings I’ve used as sources. Of course those of many cultures bear no such correspondence and so you won’t see them here. Gregorian reckoning may well have become the temporal lingua franca, but there’s nothing inherently sacred about it!

3. Our source for the Gaulish system is the Coligny calendar dating from the 2nd century ce, discovered in France in 1897.


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Special thanks:

Ansuharijaz (Frankish and Proto-Germanic reconstructions)
Apay Tang (Truku dialect of Seediq)
Can Dai Quang (Cham)
Eliza Jones, James Kari, Mildred Buck, plus others of the Alaska Native Language Center
Le Projet Babel (Vosgien)
Lin Ying-Chin, Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Tibetan, Pumi, Qiangic languages)
Michael Krauss and Marie Smith Jones (Eyak)
Qinglian Zhao (Naxi)
Suzanne Weryackwe of Arizona State University (Havasupai-Hualapai)
Tomedes — Smart Human Translation (Homshetsi)
… and literally hundreds of other sources



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